Psych Exam 2

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Psych Exam 2
2012-10-21 20:20:06
psychology sleep dreams hypnosis memory learning consciousness

Flash cards for Exam 2 on Chapters 4, 5, & 6
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  1. learning 
    relatively permanent change in behavior (or potential for behavior) that results from experience
  2. orienting reflex
    a first reaction to an unexpected stimulus 
  3. habituation
    decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs as the stimulus is repeated over and over
  4. NS
    neutral stumulus: a selected stimulus that doesn't elicit the UCR

    Pavlov's Ex: Bell (the bell shouldn't directly cause the salivation before it is learned)
  5. UCS
    unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that automatically triggers a response

    Pavlov's Ex: food (it automatically triggered the salivation)
  6. UCR
    unconditioned response: happens automatically, unlearned reflex

    Pavlov's Ex: Salivation (before it was learned)
  7. CR 
    conditioned response: response that occurs becuase of CS 

    Pavlov's ex: salivation w/out food, only after hearing the bell
  8. CS
    conditioned stimulus: response that occurs, NS becomes CS (learned)

    Pavlov's Ex: bell
  9. contiguity 
    how far apart NS (bell) & UCS (food) happen
  10. contingency (think...."consistency")
    how often UCS (food) is presented after NS (bell) 
  11. generalization
    respond to diff but similar situations

    My Ex: My fear of snakes also causes fear of ANYTHING slithery.
  12. discrimination 
    responding only in situations where you think you will be reinforced
  13. counter-conditioning
    conditioning someone to have a positive reaction, after they have conditioned them to have a negative reaction
  14. extinction
    behavior is no longer enforced, so there is no more response
  15. spontaneous recovery
    behavior comes back without UCS (noise)
  16. Pavlov's expirement
    Conditioned dogs to salivate after they heard a bell by first teaching them that they get food after the bell is rung. 
  17. Little Albert Expirement 
    • (Watson) 
    • Little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of a rat because everytime the rat that he thought he liked came out to play, he would hear a big scary noise. He thought the rat had something to do with the scary noise, so he didn't like it. He also didn't like any other animals (this having to do with generalization!). 
  18. Bandura
    conducted Bobo Doll Expirement
  19. law of effect
    behaviors that lead to positive consequences are going to be strengthened and more likely to occur. behaviors that lead to negative behaviors will be weakened and are less likely to occur
  20. shaping
    a new behavior is created by "successive aproximations" of the final behavior
  21. extinction burst
    you stop getting reinforcement but you work harder thinking that maybe you will
  22. Skinner box
    B.F. Skinner's box (like Thorndike's cat puzzle boxes) but he taught them how to get their award first
  23. primary reinforcer
    reinforcing one's self
  24. secondary reinforcer
    only reinforcing because they lead to primary reinforcements
  25. token economy
    set up where people are given tokens for good behavior that are later redeemed for a primary reinforcer
  26. fixed reinforcement schedule
    rewarded after a fixed number of times the behavior occurs
  27. variable reinforcement schedule
    rewarded after varying number of times the behavior occurs
  28. ratio reinforcement schedule
    rewarded according to number of responses
  29. interval reinforcement schedule
    rewarded according to amount of times behavior occurs
  30. positive reinforcement
    adding something pleasant
  31. negative punishment
    removing something pleasant
  32. positive punishment
    adding something unpleasant
  33. negative reinforcement
    removing something unpleasant
  34. operant conditioning
    we learn from the consequences of our behavior, what happens AFTER we respond
  35. observational learning
    learning through observing and imitating others' behavior
  36. Four steps of modeling (observational learning)
    • 1. Attention: see a behavior
    • 2. Retention in memory: remember a behavior
    • 3. Reproduction of a behavior: do the behavior
    • 4. Motivation: must have some drive to do the behavior
  37. echoic memory
    sensory memory for sound- lasts 2 seconds
  38. iconic memory
    sensory memory for visual stimuli- lasts 1/2 second
  39. sensory memory
    very breif storage of info in sensory form (image,sound)
  40. primary and recency effects 
    its easier to remember items at the beginning/end of the list
  41. semantic encoding
    storage of the general meaning of a stimulus rather than sensory details
  42. central executive
    part of working memory; controlls our attention
  43. phonological loop
    processes auditory info; part of working memory
  44. visuospatial sketch pad
    processes visual and spatial info; part of working memory
  45. working memory
    accesses and moves info around in several types of memory
  46. explicit
    type of long term memory; concious use of memory
  47. implicit
    type of long term memory; unconcious memory
  48. declaritive
    type of long term memory; knowledge can be verbalized (same as explicit)
  49. semantic
    part of long term memory; conceprs, knowledge
  50. episodic
    part of long term memory; detailed events in ones life
  51. retrograde amnesia
    inability to RECIEVE PRIOR declaritive memories from long term memory
  52. anterograde amnesia
    inability to ENCODE NEW declaritive memories in long term memory
  53. maintenence rehearsal
    (memory technique)
    repeating something over and over in your head
  54. elaborative rehearsal 
    (memory technique)
    forming associations and pics relating it to your life
  55. chunking
    (memory technique)
    grouping info together into smaller, meaningful groups
  56. pegwords technique
    (memory technique)
    • use rhyming words/number paits to remember objects
    • bun, shoe, tree, door, hive, sitcks, heaven, gate, wine, men
  57. acronyms
    (memory technique)
    forming words with first letter of each word you want to remember
  58. acrostics
    (memory technique)
    create a SAYING based on first letter of words you want to remember
  59. method of loci
    (memory technique)
    associating objects with a path you're familiar with
  60. visual exaggeration
    (memory technique)
    create an exaggerated image in your head to remember something
  61. association
    (memory technique)
    associating a word with something familiar
  62. distributed practice
    (memory technique)
    spreading study over several days
  63. overlearning
    (memory technique)
    keep studying and learning more after you learn the subject
  64. info processing approach
    • encoding- inputting info into your memory
    • storage- hold on to info until you need it
    • retrievall- accessing info at a later time
  65. circadian rhythim 
    changes alertness and other bodily reflexes
  66. narcolepsy
    entering REM sleep during alert periods of the day
  67. sleep apnea
    when a person stops breathing during sleep
  68. enuresis
    frequent bedwetting
  69. stages of sleep
    NON-REM SLEEP: stage 1-light sleep, stage 2- sleep spindles occur(bursts of activity and energy), stage 3 and 4- slow wave sleep(slow relaxed) 

    REM SLEEP: where dreams occur
  70. disassociation hypnosis theory
    stats that hypnosis is an altered state of conciousness (disassociated from our body)
  71. response set hypnosis theory
    stats that hypnosis is just us being very willing to respond to suggestion
  72. Why do we need sleep?
    Physical Health Reasons: organs "recharge," activates growth hormones, strengthens immune system

    Mental Health Reasons: memory, mode, attention and concetration
  73. What determines how much sleep we need?
    age, environment, gender
  74. psychoactive drug
    substances that influence the brain and one's behavior
  75. use vs. abuse vs. dependence
    any ingestion of a drug--> the drug affects your life (hard to define) --> "addiction"
  76. depressants
    • decrease central nervous system activity, relaxing, reduce anxiety 
    • examples: alcohol, sedatives/barbituates (sleeping pills, muscle relaxers)
  77. opiates
    • reduce pain, cause euphoria
    • examples: heroin, morphine, oxy, vicodin
  78. stimulants
    • increase CNS activity, more energetic/alert, loss of apetite
    • examples: caffeine, nicotine, crack/cocaine, amphetemines, ecstasy 
  79. hallucinogens
    • alter sensory perception
    • examples: marijuana, LSD, shrooms, PCP
  80. moral perspective
    (theoretical cause of substance use disorders)
    weak people become addicts (not supported)
  81. biochemical based
    (theoretical cause of substance use disorders)
    • biological difference causes a person to become and addict
    • (supported by genetics)
  82. disease model
    (theoretical cause of substance use disorders)
    drug addiction is a disease (mixed research and ideas...)
  83. personality based
    (theoretical cause of substance use disorders)
    a person has an "addictive personality" (no supporting research)
  84. learning-theory based
    (theoretical cause of substance use disorders)
    using patterns are developed and maintained through conditioning (people who think they are self-medicating,..)
  85. Fastest-Slowest ways of administration
    • Eat (slowest)
    • Drink
    • Snort 
    • Inject
    • Smoke (fastest)