biol

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lolaboo
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178353
Filename:
biol
Updated:
2012-10-19 02:41:58
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science
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biology
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  1. Viruses are made of the same four types of biological molecules as living cells. These include all of the
    lipids.carbohydrates. proteins. nucleic acids. all of those besides capsids)
  2. The "bead" that allows the HIV particle to attach to and enter cells is
    made of protein.
  3. this element is prominent in both living organisms and in the Earth's surface.
    oxygen
  4. The atomic nucleus consists of
    neutrons and protons.
  5. In an atom, the electrons are
    present in various energy shells.
  6. 12C, 13C, and 14C are all isotopes of carbon. They differ in their
    number of neutrons.
  7. Because the shared electrons between hydrogen and oxygen spend more time orbiting the oxygen than the hydrogen, water is
    a polar molecule.
  8. Rank the following chemical bonds from weakest to strongest:
    hydrogen, ionic, covalent
  9. Surface tension of water is due to
    hydrogen bonding
  10. The internal pH of most cells is near neutral. This allows
    enzymes within the cells to act at peak efficiency.
  11. Joining thousands of simple sugars together through a series of chemical reactions forms polysaccharides. These are referred to as _____________ reactions.
    condensation
  12. The internal pH of most cells is near neutral. This allows
    hydrogen bonding
  13. Joining thousands of simple sugars together through a series of chemical reactions forms polysaccharides. These are referred to as _____________ reactions.
    condensation
  14. Examples of polysaccharides include all of the following except
    sucrose.
  15. Polypeptides consist of strings of amino acids held together by
    peptide bonds.
  16. Classes of lipids include all of the following except
    carbohydrates.
  17. What method is often used by cells to move large solid material into the cell?
    phagocytosis
  18. What method is often used by cells to move large solid material into the cell?
    phagocytosis
  19. What method is often used by cells to move large solid material into the cell?
    phagocytosis
  20. An atom in which the number of electrons is different from the number of protons is called a(n)
    Ion
  21. Kool-Aid readily dissolves in water. This means that Kool-Aid is
    hydrophilic.
  22. Kool-Aid readily dissolves in water. This means that Kool-Aid is
    Ion
  23. With few exceptions, organic compounds are those that contain
    Viruses are not considered to be living things, although they can evolve, and they do have genetic material. However, they
  24. With few exceptions, organic compounds are those that contain
    Viruses are not considered to be living things, although they can evolve, and they do have genetic material. However, they
  25. Viruses are not considered to be living things, although they can evolve, and they do have genetic material. However, they
    cannot reproduce on their own.
  26. Which of the following elements is not particularly abundant in living cells?
    helium
  27. Because of the atomic structure of carbon, it tends to form
    covalent bonds.
  28. Most cells are small. When they reach a certain size, cells typically divide. This has to do with the
    a. amount of genetic material. b. Surface-to-volume ratio. c. inability to produce more components of the cell membrane. d. fact that they cannot possess sufficient numbers of organelles for normal cell functioning. e. differences between viral particles and eukaryotic cells.
  29. Hummingbirds' small size allows them to hover while extracting nectar from various flowers. This same small size requires large amounts of calories to maintain body temperature because
    they have a large surface area relative to their body mass.
  30. A stone is pushed from the top of a hill. Halfway to the bottom of the hill, this rolling stone
    has both potential energy and kinetic energy.
  31. As one form of energy is converted into another, there is always some energy lost as
    heat
  32. Substances that start chemical reactions are called
    reactants.
  33. In a cell
    energy-releasing reactions are coupled to energy-absorbing reactions.
  34. The most common energy-carrying molecule in the cell is
    ATP
  35. All enzymes act by
    lowering the activation energy of specific chemical reactions.
  36. The active site of an enzyme
    binds the reactants of a chemical reaction.
  37. The majority of ATP produced in cellular respiration is produced during
    the electron transport chain.
  38. What process occurs in both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways?
    glycolysis
  39. The role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
    act as the final electron acceptor.
  40. The main purpose of fermentation reactions is to
    regenerate the electron carriers needed for glycolysis.
  41. In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions
    produce ATP and NADPH.
  42. The chemical reactions associated with metabolism
    are energy absorbing and energy releasing.
  43. The chemical reactions associated with metabolism
    are energy absorbing and energy releasing.
  44. The chemical reactions associated with metabolism
    are energy absorbing and energy releasing.
  45. Almost all enzymes are,
    protein
  46. Which of the following is not a product of cellular respiration?
    oxygen
  47. How many turns of the Krebs cycle are necessary to completely break down one molecule of glucose?
    2
  48. Which of the following does not take place during the first of the two phases of photosynthesis?
    Carbon dioxide is fixed.
  49. Hummingbirds break down (oxidize) glucose and other food molecules during cellular respiration. The carbon atoms in these organic molecules are released as ____________during the _____________.
    carbon dioxide, Krebs cycle
  50. The primary energy carrier between the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system is a. carbon dioxide.
    nadh
  51. choose the process that does not occur during the light-trapping phase of photosynthesis
    Carbon dioxide is fixed.
  52. Which color of light has the least important role in photosynthesis?
    green
  53. Pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol and lactic acid during fermentation because organisms
    need to recycle NAD+ back to glycolysis.
  54. a subtrate
    fits into the active site of a specific enzyme.
  55. Which of the following chemical reactions will provide most of the energy to the hummingbird so it can beat its wings 40 - 80 times a second?
    ATP  ADP + P
  56. During the Calvin-Benson cycle, in the red Columbine plant, high-energy electrons from NADPH are transferred into a newly made 3-carbon compound. Eventually these electrons will end up as part of glucose molecules. What was the original source of these electrons in photosynthesis?
    water or oxygen
  57. 1. Glucose sugar is converted to pyruvate. 2. Energy from high-energy electrons is released from an electron transport chain. This energy is used to make ATP. 3. The hummingbird exhales carbon dioxide and energy is primarily transferred to NADH. 4. The hummingbird beats its wings 40 - 80 times a second.A hummingbird is "drinking" nectar containing sugar from a red columbine flower. Arrange the following events to occur in the hummingbird in order from the first to last:
    1, 3, 2, 4
  58. Matrix
    Enzyme responsible for copying the HIV RNA into a DNA copy
  59. Structure surrounding the viral nucleic acids
    Envelope
  60. Enzyme responsible for copying the HIV RNA into a DNA copy
    Matrix
  61. Structure surrounding the viral nucleic acids
    envelope
  62. The outer portion of the viral particle
    RNA
  63. Type of molecule in which HIV genetic information is stored
    reverse transcriptase
  64. mitochondria
    These break down carbon-containing molecules to make ATP.
  65. golgi apparatus
    Modification of proteins takes place, often determining the final destination for these proteins.
  66. Proteins are made on these.
    Ribosomes
  67. The genetic material is stored here.
    nucleus
  68. Lipids and phospholipids are produced here.
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  69. Ionic bonds
    • Characteristic of sodium and chloride
    • Characteristic of an atom with 7 electrons in its outer shell
  70. Covalent bond
    • Characteristic of a single water molecule
    • Characteristic of carbon atoms
  71. hydrogen bonds
    Characteristic of adjacent water molecules
  72. proteins classifications
    • amino acids 
    • alpha helix
  73. Nucleic acids classifications
    • Dna
    • ATP
  74. Lipid classification
    monounsaturated fats
  75. Glycolysis produces _ATP molocules in
    2 rounds
  76. Krebs cycle produces _ATP molocules in
    2
  77. electron transport chain produces _ATP molocules in
    32
  78. alcholic and lactic acid Fermination produces _ATP molocules in
    2 turns
  79. light-independent reactions
    This process requires CO2.
  80. This process can lead to the production of ethanol.
    Fermentation
  81. Krebs cycle
    Many of the molecules are intermediates in other pathways.
  82. light-dependent reactions
    Certain pigments play a role.
  83. electron transport
    The majority of ATP from cellular respiration is produced during this process.
  84. electron transport chain in the mitochondria
    Most of a cell's ATP is produced during this cellular process.
  85. Calvin-Benson cycle
    Glucose is produced.
  86. Fermentation
    Two ATP are produced and NAD+ is recycled.
  87. Fermentation
    Two ATP are produced and NAD+ is recycled.
  88. light trapping phase of photosynthesis
    Water is split and ATP and NADPH are produced.
  89. glycolysis
    Glucose is oxidized to pyruvate.

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