What is cultural heritage? Be able to provide examples of types of cultural heritage we discussed (ie. monuments, urban landscapes, buildings, natural landscapes and features, etc.)
In 1972, UNESCO defined cultural heritage as being made up of monuments, groups of buildings and sites.
The sites include natural/cultural, historic/prehistoric standing and buried buildings, landscapes and monuments that are of significance for societies.
A monument example of cultural heritage sites includes Stonehenge. Some examples of archaeological sites include Chichen Itza and Machu Pichu.
The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is an example of a natural heritage site.
What are UNESCO and ICOMOS? What are their conventions and issues of concentration?
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
ICOMOS: International Council of Monuments and Sites (global non-government organization)
Both are dedicated to promoting the application of theory, methodology, and scientific techniques to the conservation of the architectural and archaeological heritage.
What are some examples of documentation tools for the management of cultural heritage and how does this fit with goals and conventions of UNESCO?
UNESCO takes advantage of modern-day technology such as laser scanning, Google Earth, and aerial photography for their documentation.
Different types of documentation are applied including risk-mitigation, legislation regarding conservation and methods of conservation.
Google Earth permits the sites to be tracked over time to identify if any kind of damage or looting is being done to it.
Why should we consider tourism and socio-economic impacts when examining cultural heritage preservation factors? What are some examples of conflicts where technology and documentation can be applied as a possible solution?
Much deterioration is caused as a result of tourism and public access.
Major factors include tourism, warfare, looting, uncontrolled development, lack of funding and conservation.
Example: Olmec site of La Venta. In 2009, people came in and poured salt water, grape juice and oil on the monuments as part of a “ritual”. The monuments were greatly damaged.
By using laser scanning on those monuments, they can be digitally saved and recovered. Also, authentic ones can be preserved, and replicas can be put on display.
What is meant by intangible heritage? Can this be documented? How?
Intangible heritage includes concepts like music, stories and oral history.
Modern technology permits us to document these via audio recording and computer files.
What are the three aims of survey and what is the meaning of these aims?
3 aims of surveying is to be able to record, visualize and interpret.
The records need to be accurate, based on the stated level of record and limitations and easily accessible.
Data can be visualized in multiple ways including mapping, charts and scanned imagery. The more precise the data the more accurate the image will be.
Interpretations can be acquired from the prior two steps, based on the original question asked.
New questions can arise from the data.
Why are file naming conventions important? If you were collecting field data, what is an example of a nomenclature you would use for file management? Hint: should be standard and intuitive!
The project leader defines file-naming conventions.
They need to be logical and detailed in order to permit people accessing the data to use the correct files.
Based on personal experience when analyzing archaeological data, I named the spreadsheets based on the unit number, which were found in a folder for the archaeological site.
When dealing with imagery, it is important for the filename to include name of artifact and what modifications have been made to the image.
What is metadata? Examples of important things contained in metadata.
Metadata is data about data. It is used commonly by libraries, museums and researchers describe the details about the data being presented.
For archaeological data that would include:
source(s) of information
scale of maps
tools used to acquire the data
Examples of early tools of American surveyors and how are they different today?
equal altitude instrument
much less accurate.
In places where iron existed, tools like the circumferenter could not be used at all.
The measurements were estimated.
How is a robotic total station more advantageous in many cases than standard total station? From your reading, what methods did Kvamme use to enhance survey capabilities?
The robotic station automatically records x, y, and z point data as being walked across the site.
It permits the job to be done by one individual, instead of at least two people necessary for the standard total station.
It also generates a much more detailed data set then the standard total station.
In order to be able to get the overview of the whole park, Kvamme surveyed that area with 20 meters between strips instead of 10, which sped up the work and permitted to get a survey of the complete park.
How useful are the new surveying tools to archaeology (in what ways) and heritage documentation?
They permit a much higher detail and accuracy of data acquisition / recording.
GPS permits exact recording of data location.
What is a GIS? How is it a useful tool for archaeology and HP? What are the four components of a GIS?
GIS stands for Geographic Information System. It is a software that imports geographic data and permits the user to add additional information to it. GIS programs create interactive maps by displaying the data connected with each defined area.
The 4 components include:
What is GPS? Are there different types? Does it matter what type you use? When appropriate? If given an example of a project, be able to discuss appropriate technologies you would employ and be able to support your decisions.
GPS stands for Global Positioning System.
3are main types:
single vs. dual frequency receivers
RTK (Real Time Kinematic) GPS is one that has 2+ frequencies. This removes the error of ionospheric delay that would have been present with 1 frequency. This is a good option for plotting points at an archaeological site.
Why do we need four satellites for a GPS receiver to 'determine' location?
Because 3 are needed for the x, y, and z coordinate points and 1 for the time error (∆t).
When planning a GPS mapping mission, what are important factors to consider ahead of time (give several and be able to discuss them)
Aim to be as accurate as possible for future use
Specify the limitations of the record
Scale: for archaeological sites scale should be 1:2000 or 1:1000
Method of acquisition
Analyze pre-existing sources even if they weren't done as accurately or up to date
Historical sources do give some additional details
What is meant by landscape archaeology?
Landscape archaeology studies the way people of the past shaped the land around them, consciously or unconsciously.
Planned landscapes are ones that are designed by people where lines were defined and plants intentionally planted in a particular layout.
Methods from your readings that can be used to ‘see’ landscapes?
LiDAR scans made at the MD plantation uncovered a number of features that would not have been visible to the naked eye.
Google Earth permitted people to identify landscape differences over time as a result of historic and more recent images.
What are 2 examples of aerial and 2 of terrestrial based remote sensing methods?
Aerial: aerial photography, aerial LiDAR
Terrestrial: GPS, terrestrial LiDAR
What is GPS used for with aerial analysis and interpretation in archaeology?
Real world coordinates
What, if any, problems are there for incorporating and using satellite and aerial imagery more in archaeology?
not all areas around the world have the same amount of information available due to the different levels of resolution
How can World Heritage be monitored ‘from the air”?
Google Earth is an application that uses the photos done by Google to see the current state of a location worldwide.
Google also links the locations to their earlier historic photos, which permit us to identify the difference that the area/site has undergone over time.
What is LiDAR? Is LiDAR and laser scanning the same thing?
LiDAR stands for Light Detection and Ranging.
It can be used from multiple perspectives on land and aerially.
LiDAR is the same thing as laser scanning.
It acquires data by a laser beam being bounced off the surface of the site or artifact and returning to the scanner with the data.
What is rapid prototyping and how does it relate to laser scanning?
Rapid prototyping is a method of outputting data from a computer as a 3D item.
When an item is laser scanned, it generates a 3D image of the item being scanned, like an artifact.
These images can then be prototyped into replicas of the original item.