10/26 red chapter 3

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sandy2696
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10/26 red chapter 3
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2012-10-21 15:41:51
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10/26 red chapter 3
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  1. The properties of ____ ____ include frequency, wavelength, velocity and amplitude.
    electromagnetic energy
  2. Ever present around us is a field or state of energy called ___ ___ ?
    electromagnetic energy
  3. Electromagnetic energy exist over a wide range called an
    energy _____.
    continuum
  4. A _____ is an uninterrupted (continuous) ordered sequence.
    continuum
  5. An atom of light is called a ______ ?
    photon
  6. A _____ is the smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy, just as an atom is the smallest quanity of an element.
    PHOTON
  7. A photon may be pictured as a small bundle of energy, sometimes called a _____, that travels through space at the speed of light
    quantum
  8. We speak of x-ray photons, light photons, and other types of electromagnetic energy as _____ ______
    photo radiation
  9. An x-ray photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy
  10. late in the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell showed that visible light has both electrical and magnetic properties, hence the term ___________ __________.
    electromagnetic energy
  11. Photons are _____ _____ tht move through space at the spped of light (c)
    energy disturbances
  12. The velocity of all electromagnetic radiation is 3 x 10 to the eighth m/s.
  13. The term _____ describes interactions among different energies, forces, or masses that can otherwise be described only mathematically.
    field
  14. Amplitude is one- half the range from the creast to valley over which the sine waves varies.
  15. c represents _________

    f represents__________

    lambda symbol represents____________
    velocity

    frequency

    wavelength
  16. The rate of rise & fall is ___________.

    It is usually identified as cycles per second
    frequency
  17. One _____ is equal to 1 cycle per second
    hertz
  18. the _____ is equal to the number of crest or the number of valleys that pass the point of an observer per unit of time.
    frequency
  19. frequency is the number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second.
  20. The _____ is the distance from one crest to another, from one valley to another, or from any point on the sine wave to the next corresponding point.
    wavelength
  21. Three wave parameters - _____, _____, and _____ - are needed to describe electromagnetic energy.

    The relationship among these parameters is important.
    A change in one affects the value of the others.
    Velocity is constant
    velocity, frequency & wavelength
  22. At a given velocity, waveength and frequency are inversly proportional.
  23. The wave _____ is used for both sound & electromagnetic energy.
    equation
  24. for electromagnetic energy, frequency and wavelength are inversly proportional.
  25. THe electromagnetic spectrum includes the entire range of electromagnetic energy.
  26. _____ is used to describe radio waves
    hertz
  27. Diagnostic ultrasound is not part of the electromagnetic spectrum
  28. The known electromagnetic spectrum has three regions most important to radiologic science: ___ ____, and ___.

    Other portions of the spectrum include ultraviolet light, infared light, and microwave radiation.
    visible light, x and gamma ray, and RF
  29. The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency
  30. This deviation in line of travel, called _____, is the cause of many peculiar but familar phenomena, such as a rainbow or the apparent bending of a straw in a glass of water.
    refraction
  31. RF means
    radiofrequency
  32. Communication broadcast are usually identified by their frequency of transmission and are called _______ emissions.
    radiofrequency (RF)
  33. A very short wavelength RF is _______ radiation.
    microwave
  34. An _____ photon contains considerably more energy than a visible light photon or an RF photon
    x-ray
  35. It is sometime said that ___ ____ have higher energy than x-rays
    gamma rays
  36. The only difference between xrays and gamma rays is their origin
  37. ______ are emitted from the electron cloud of an atom that has been stimulated artifically.
    x rays
  38. ____ ____, come from inside the nucleus of a radioactive atom
    gamma rays
  39. Visible light is identified by wavelength, radiofrequency is identified by frequency, and x-rays are identified by energy.
  40. x- rays are produced outside the nucleus of excited atoms
  41. Gamma rays are produced inside the nucleus of radioactive atoms
  42. Note: A photon od x-radiation and a photonof visible light are fundamentally the same except that x-radiation has a much higher freqency,a nd hence a shorter wavelength, than visible light. These differences result in differences in the way these photons interact with matter.
  43. ___ -____ photons tend to behave more like waves than particles
    Visible - light
  44. __-___ behave more liek particles than waves
    x-rays
  45. In fact, both types of photons exhibits both types of behavior - a phenomenon known as the  ___-___ ____ of electromagnetic energy
    wave particle duality
  46. Photons interact with matter most easily when the matter is approximately the same size as the photon wavelength
  47. x-rays behave as though they are particles
  48. the ____-_____ spectrum extends from short-wavelength violet radiation through green and yellow to long wavelength red radiation.
    visible light
  49. visible light behaves like a wave
  50. Electromagnetic energy attenuation is the reduction in intensity that results from scattering and absorption
  51. Instead of seeing clearly through the glass, it is blurred.
    this glass is known as
    translucent
  52. The terms ____ and _____ are sed routinely in x-ray diagnosis to describe the visual appearance of anatomical structures
    radioplaque & radiolucent
  53. Structures that absorb x-rays are called
    radiopaque


    Bone is radioplaque - lung tissue is radiolucent
  54. Structures that transmits x-rays are called ______
    radiolucent

    lung tissue is radiolucent - bone is radioplque
  55. The decrease in intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the object from the source is known as the:
    Inverse Square law
  56. Electromagnetic energy (radation) intensity is inversely related to the square of distance from the source
  57. The inverse square law canbe applied to distances greater than seventimes the longest dimesion of the source
  58. To appply the inverse square law you must know 3 of the 4 parameters, which consist on two ______ and two _____.
    distances & intensities
  59. The x-ray photon is a discrete bundle of energy
  60. Xrays exist with the speed of light (c), and they exist with velocity (c) or they do not exist at all.
    That is one of the substansive statements of  _____ _____ _____.
    Planck's quantum theory
  61. Another important consequence of the quantum theory is the relationship between _____ and _____
    energy & frequency
  62. Photon energy is directly proportional to photon frequency
  63. The constant of proportionality, knwon as ____ ____ and is symbolized by (h)
    Planck's constant
  64. The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency
  65. According to classic physics, matter can be neither created nor destroyed, a law known as the
    law of conservation matter
  66. This law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
    law of conservation of energy
  67. _____ _____ is an example of the conversion of energy into mass
    pair production
  68. A ____ is a unit of energy
    joule
  69. Summary: Although matter and energy are interchangable, x-ray imaging is based on energy in the form of x-ray photons that interact with tissue and an image receptor.
    x-rays are one type of photon of electromagnetic energy. Frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude are used to describe the various imaging regions of the elecromagnetic spectrum. These characterics of electromagnetic energy determine how such radiation interacts with matter

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