# 10/26 red chapter 3

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1. The properties of ____ ____ include frequency, wavelength, velocity and amplitude.
electromagnetic energy
2. Ever present around us is a field or state of energy called ___ ___ ?
electromagnetic energy
3. Electromagnetic energy exist over a wide range called an
energy _____.
continuum
4. A _____ is an uninterrupted (continuous) ordered sequence.
continuum
5. An atom of light is called a ______ ?
photon
6. A _____ is the smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy, just as an atom is the smallest quanity of an element.
PHOTON
7. A photon may be pictured as a small bundle of energy, sometimes called a _____, that travels through space at the speed of light
quantum
8. We speak of x-ray photons, light photons, and other types of electromagnetic energy as _____ ______
9. An x-ray photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy
10. late in the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell showed that visible light has both electrical and magnetic properties, hence the term ___________ __________.
electromagnetic energy
11. Photons are _____ _____ tht move through space at the spped of light (c)
energy disturbances
12. The velocity of all electromagnetic radiation is 3 x 10 to the eighth m/s.
13. The term _____ describes interactions among different energies, forces, or masses that can otherwise be described only mathematically.
field
14. Amplitude is one- half the range from the creast to valley over which the sine waves varies.
15. c represents _________

f represents__________

lambda symbol represents____________
velocity

frequency

wavelength
16. The rate of rise & fall is ___________.

It is usually identified as cycles per second
frequency
17. One _____ is equal to 1 cycle per second
hertz
18. the _____ is equal to the number of crest or the number of valleys that pass the point of an observer per unit of time.
frequency
19. frequency is the number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second.
20. The _____ is the distance from one crest to another, from one valley to another, or from any point on the sine wave to the next corresponding point.
wavelength
21. Three wave parameters - _____, _____, and _____ - are needed to describe electromagnetic energy.

The relationship among these parameters is important.
A change in one affects the value of the others.
Velocity is constant
velocity, frequency & wavelength
22. At a given velocity, waveength and frequency are inversly proportional.
23. The wave _____ is used for both sound & electromagnetic energy.
equation
24. for electromagnetic energy, frequency and wavelength are inversly proportional.
25. THe electromagnetic spectrum includes the entire range of electromagnetic energy.
26. _____ is used to describe radio waves
hertz
27. Diagnostic ultrasound is not part of the electromagnetic spectrum
28. The known electromagnetic spectrum has three regions most important to radiologic science: ___ ____, and ___.

Other portions of the spectrum include ultraviolet light, infared light, and microwave radiation.
visible light, x and gamma ray, and RF
29. The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency
30. This deviation in line of travel, called _____, is the cause of many peculiar but familar phenomena, such as a rainbow or the apparent bending of a straw in a glass of water.
refraction
31. RF means
32. Communication broadcast are usually identified by their frequency of transmission and are called _______ emissions.
33. A very short wavelength RF is _______ radiation.
microwave
34. An _____ photon contains considerably more energy than a visible light photon or an RF photon
x-ray
35. It is sometime said that ___ ____ have higher energy than x-rays
gamma rays
36. The only difference between xrays and gamma rays is their origin
37. ______ are emitted from the electron cloud of an atom that has been stimulated artifically.
x rays
38. ____ ____, come from inside the nucleus of a radioactive atom
gamma rays
39. Visible light is identified by wavelength, radiofrequency is identified by frequency, and x-rays are identified by energy.
40. x- rays are produced outside the nucleus of excited atoms
41. Gamma rays are produced inside the nucleus of radioactive atoms
42. Note: A photon od x-radiation and a photonof visible light are fundamentally the same except that x-radiation has a much higher freqency,a nd hence a shorter wavelength, than visible light. These differences result in differences in the way these photons interact with matter.
43. ___ -____ photons tend to behave more like waves than particles
Visible - light
44. __-___ behave more liek particles than waves
x-rays
45. In fact, both types of photons exhibits both types of behavior - a phenomenon known as the  ___-___ ____ of electromagnetic energy
wave particle duality
46. Photons interact with matter most easily when the matter is approximately the same size as the photon wavelength
47. x-rays behave as though they are particles
48. the ____-_____ spectrum extends from short-wavelength violet radiation through green and yellow to long wavelength red radiation.
visible light
49. visible light behaves like a wave
50. Electromagnetic energy attenuation is the reduction in intensity that results from scattering and absorption
51. Instead of seeing clearly through the glass, it is blurred.
this glass is known as
translucent
52. The terms ____ and _____ are sed routinely in x-ray diagnosis to describe the visual appearance of anatomical structures
53. Structures that absorb x-rays are called

54. Structures that transmits x-rays are called ______

55. The decrease in intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the object from the source is known as the:
Inverse Square law
56. Electromagnetic energy (radation) intensity is inversely related to the square of distance from the source
57. The inverse square law canbe applied to distances greater than seventimes the longest dimesion of the source
58. To appply the inverse square law you must know 3 of the 4 parameters, which consist on two ______ and two _____.
distances & intensities
59. The x-ray photon is a discrete bundle of energy
60. Xrays exist with the speed of light (c), and they exist with velocity (c) or they do not exist at all.
That is one of the substansive statements of  _____ _____ _____.
Planck's quantum theory
61. Another important consequence of the quantum theory is the relationship between _____ and _____
energy & frequency
62. Photon energy is directly proportional to photon frequency
63. The constant of proportionality, knwon as ____ ____ and is symbolized by (h)
Planck's constant
64. The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency
65. According to classic physics, matter can be neither created nor destroyed, a law known as the
law of conservation matter
66. This law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
law of conservation of energy
67. _____ _____ is an example of the conversion of energy into mass
pair production
68. A ____ is a unit of energy
joule
69. Summary: Although matter and energy are interchangable, x-ray imaging is based on energy in the form of x-ray photons that interact with tissue and an image receptor.
x-rays are one type of photon of electromagnetic energy. Frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude are used to describe the various imaging regions of the elecromagnetic spectrum. These characterics of electromagnetic energy determine how such radiation interacts with matter
 Author: sandy2696 ID: 178452 Card Set: 10/26 red chapter 3 Updated: 2012-10-21 19:41:51 Tags: scott 10 26 red chapter Folders: Description: 10/26 red chapter 3 Show Answers: