CNA Chapter 15 Vocabulary

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CNA Chapter 15 Vocabulary
2012-10-19 19:21:49
CNA Nursing Assisting Hartman 3rd Edition

The Gastrointestinal System
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  1. Absorbtion
    the digestive process in which digestive juices and enzymes break down food into materials the body can use
  2. Anatomy
    the study of body structure
  3. Biology
    the study of all life forms
  4. Body Systems
    groups of organs that perform specific functions in the human body
  5. Bowel Elimination
    the physical process of releasing or emptying the colon or large intestines of solid waste, called stool or feces
  6. Cells
    the basic structural unit of all organisms
  7. Chyme
    semi-liquid substance made as a result of the chemical breakdown of food in the stomach
  8. Colon
    the large intestine
  9. Colostomy
    surgically-created opening through the abdominal wall into the large intestine to allow feces to be expelled
  10. Constipation
    the inabbility to eliminate stool, or the infrequent, difficult and often painful elimination of a hard, dry stool
  11. Crohn's Disease
    a disease that causes the wall of the intestines (large or small) to become inflamed (red, sore, & swollen)
  12. Defecation
    the process of eliminating feces from the rectum through the anus
  13. Diarrhea
    frequent elimination of liquid or semi-liquid feces
  14. Digestion
    the process of breaking down food so that it can be absorbed into the cells
  15. Diverticulosis
    innflammation of sacs that develop in the wall of the large intestine due to diverticulosis
  16. Diverticulosis
    a disorder in which sac-like pouching develop in weakened areas of the wall of the large inntestine (colon)
  17. Duodenum
    the first part of the small intestine, where the common bile duct enters the small intestine
  18. Electrolytes
    chemical substances that are essential to maintaining fluid balance and homeostasis in the body
  19. Elimination
    the process of expelling wastes
  20. Enema
    a specific amount of water, with or without an additive, introduced into the colon to eliminate stool
  21. Fecal Impaction
    a mass of dry, hard stool that remains packed in the rectum and cannot be expelled
  22. Feces
    solid body waste excreted through the anus from the large intestines; also called stool
  23. Flatulence
    air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum; also called gas or flatus
  24. Fracture Pain
    a bedpan that is flatter than a regular bedpan; used for small or thin people or those who cannot lift their buttocks onto a standard bedpan
  25. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    chronic condition in which the liquid contents of the stomach back up into the esophagus
  26. Gastrointestinal Tract
    a continuous tube from the opening of the mouth all the way to the anus, where solid wastes are eliminated from the body
  27. Heartburn
    a condition the results from the weakening of the sphincter muscle which joins the esophagus and the stomach; also known as acid reflux
  28. Hemorrhoids
    enlarged veins in the rectum that can cause itching, burning, pain, & bleeding
  29. Homeostasis
    the condition in which all of the body's systems are balanced and are working at their best
  30. Ileostomy
    surgically-created opening into the end of the small intestine, the ileum, to allow feces to be expelled
  31. Ingestion
    the process of taking food or fluids into the body
  32. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract that is worsened by stress
  33. Malabsorption
    a condition in which the body cannot absorb or digest a particular nutrient properly
  34. Occult
  35. Organ
    a structural unit in the human body that performs a specific function
  36. Ostomy
    surgical creation of an opening from an area inside the body to the outside
  37. Pathophysiology
    the study of the disorders that occur in the body
  38. Peristalsis
    muscular contractions that push food through the gastrointestinal tract
  39. Physiology
    the study of how body parts function
  40. Portable Commode
     a chair with a toilet seat and a removeable container underneath; used for elimination; also called a bedside commode
  41. Specimen
    a sample, such as tissue, blood, urine, stool, or spuctum, used for analysis and diagnosis
  42. Stoma
    an artificial opening in the body
  43. Suppository
    a medication given rectally to cause a bowel movement
  44. Tissues
    a group of cells that performs similar tasks
  45. Ulcerative Colitis
    a chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestines
  46. Ureterostomy
    a type of urostomy in which a surgical creation of an opening from the ureter through the abdomen is made for urine to be eliminated
  47. Urostomy
    the general term used for any surgical procedure that diverts the passage of urine by redirecting the ureters