Nutrition Exam II.txt

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Nutrition Exam II.txt
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nutrition exam 2
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  1. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
    10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

    200 protein kcal / 4 = 50g protein
  2. 2000 kcal with 20% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
    20% x (2000 kcal) = 400 protein kcal

    400 protein kal / 4 = 100g praotein
  3. Other term for food energy
    • kcal
    • calories
    • kilojoules


    1kcal = 4.1 kj (不考)
  4. def. of Bomb Calorimeter (弹式量热)
     1 kcal - amount of heat energy required to raise tempature of 1 kg of water ↑ 1°C

    1 kcal = ↑ 1 °C
  5. 10 g CHO, how many °C will have to be ↑ ?
    10g CHO → ( x4 ) = 40 kcal =  ↑ 40 °C
  6. def.  of BMR (Basal Metabolism Rate)
    measure min. amount of energy need to carry on the vital body process (respiration呼吸, circulation sythesis of glands and hormones循环腺体和激素的合成, muscular contraction肌肉收缩, elasticity弹性)
  7. convert lb.  → kg
    lb. / 2.2 = ___kg   

    ex: ( 110lb. / 2.2 =  50    kg )
  8. convert 440lb to kg ?
    440lb / 2.2 = 200 kg
  9. calculate BMR (基础代谢率)

    Male:
    Female:
    Male:   1 * ___kg * 24°

    Female :  0.9 * ___kg * 24°
  10. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR 
    2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
    首先一定要把 lb 换成 kg   才能算

    • 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
    •      1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

    • 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
    •      0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
  11. factors affecting BMR (9个)
    • 1). genetic body composition
    • 2). body condition
    • 3). gender
    • 4). hormonal secretion
    • 5). sleep
    • 6). age
    • 7). body temprature
    • 8). nicotine from smoking
    • 9). fasting or crash diets
  12. Identical twins separated at birth have what in same ?
    same  bodytype in adulthood
  13. the major gland (腺) affects BMR
    thyroid(甲状腺)------甲状腺的主要功能是合成甲状腺激素,调节机体代谢,
  14. Hyperthyroidism
    (↑↑↑)fast BMR so ↑ food intake
  15. Hypothyroidism
    (↓↓↓) slow BMR so ↓ food intake
  16. age group affect BMR
    • infancy
    • childhood
    • puberty
    • pregnancy
    • lactation increase BMR

    BMR Begins to decrease in age 25
  17. activity expenditure is determined by
    • body weight
    • intensity
    • duration
  18. def. of Thermic Effect of Food
    production of heat that occurs as result of digestion, absorption, and metabolism
  19. ideal body fat for female
    15% - 22%
  20. ideal body fat for male
    12% - 18%
  21. fat deposition influences health
    apple vs. pear shape
  22. quick standard for female
    • 5 ' = 100#
    • addional inch = 5# additional
  23. quick standard female 5'5
    100# + 25# = 125#
  24. quick standard for male
    • 5 ' = 105#
    • each additional inch = 6 # additional
  25. quick standard male 6'
    • 1' = 12 inches
    • 105# + 72# = 177#
  26. cause of eating disorder
    • increase technology
    • increase junk food
    • increase obesity
  27. 3500 kcal = 1 #
  28. lose weight fast lose
    muscle
  29. lose weight slowly lose
    fat
  30. ideal weight lose
    0.5 - 2 # per week
  31. the most quality way to achieve weight reduction
    • eat quality food
    • increase activity
    • decrease food intake
  32. Dieter must be retrained into
    a new set of eating patterns
  33. Hunger and Satiety are controlled by
    hyperthalamus of the brain
  34. def. of under weight
    85% or below 85% of healthy body weight
  35. Q: 100# is the healthy body weight, under weight?
    equal or less than 85#
  36. BMR
    • measures the minimum amount of energy needed to carry on the Vital Body Processes
    • respiration
    • circulation
    • sythesis of glands
    • hormones
    • muscular contraction
    • elesticity
  37. identical twins seperated birth have the same body type in adulthood
  38. the body's need for energy
    • BMR
    • Activity
    • Thermic effect of food
  39. bomb calorimeter
    1 kcal the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 Celsius
  40. thermic effect of food
    10% of BMR and Activity
  41. base on a 2000 kcal diet , how many from protein
    10%
  42. how many grams of protein in a 2000 kcal diet
    • 50g
    • 200 kcal from protein food
    • 200 / 4 = 50
  43. major nutrients of fruit and vegetables
    • Vitamin C
    • Fiber
    • Vitamin A
  44. other term for food energy
    • kcal
    • calories
    • kilojoules
  45. decrease in Ascrobic Acid (Vitamin C)
    decrease calcium
  46. how much the U.S. population meet the goal of periment
    1 %
  47. most of body water is
    Intracellular
  48. Water makes up about how many percent of total body weight
    60 %
  49. Water makes up about how many percent of lean body mass ( muscle)
    70
  50. Water Intoxication
    occurs when Large amount of water is consumed Without enough electrolytes to maintain water balance so Edema may occur
  51. Edema
    • increase water retention
    • decrease urination
  52. Functions of Water
    • Solvent of Nutrients
    • Growth Facilitator
    • Catalyst for many biological reactions
    • Lubricant of Joints
    • Temperature Regulator
    • Source of Trace Element
    • Need Water to make urine to excrete waste
  53. what nutrients found in hard water
    Calcium & Magnesium
  54. End products of metabolism are
    • carbon dioxide
    • energy
    • Water
  55. Water is eliminated from the body through
    • urine
    • feces
    • skin
    • lung
    • digested juice
  56. Vigorous Activity involved
    large water losses from the body
  57. recommendation for vigorous activity
    1 cup water per 15 mins
  58. the younger the person the more water is required
  59. the percentage of body water turnover for infants is Greater than
    for adults
  60. 1 L water per 1000 kcal
    2 L water per day ( 2000 kcal )
  61. electrolytes maintain
    water balance
  62. what to eat if become dehydrogenate
    • fruits
    • salted food
    • water
  63. Sources of Sodium (Na)
    • Salt (major source)
    • baking soda, MSG
    • food and water with naturally occuring sodium
  64. Sodium present in
    extracellular fluids
  65. Functions of Sodium
    keeps water from leaving the blood and entering the cell
  66. ideal intake of sodium
    b/w 1 - 3 g per day
  67. average U.S. sodium diet
    3 - 7 g per day
  68. 1 tsp salt
    2000 mg ( 2 g ) sodium
  69. Potassium present in
    intracellular fluids
  70. Functions of Potassium
    • catalyst in many biological reactions
    • maintaining axid/base balance
    • transmission of nerve impluses
    • release of insulin from pancreas
    • *treament of hypertension
    • *main water balance
    • *main osmotic pressure
  71. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
    • decrease in Na increase in K
    • Na & K
  72. Na & K both
    • maintain water balance
    • critical foe hypertention treament
    • mainain osmotic pressure
  73. requirements for Potassium
    2 g per day
  74. metabolism of Flourine
    absorbed from the stomach
  75. Food sources of Flourine
    • Flourine added to water supply
    • mackerel (fish)
  76. Functions of Flourine
    • gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
    • gives protection against tooth decay
    • too much Flourine = browm motting on teeth
  77. too much Flourine
    results browm motting on teeth
  78. Functions of Chloride
    in the stomach as part of digested juices (HCL)
  79. minerals maintain water balance
    Na & K
  80. three compartments of mineral's maintenance of water balance
    • intravascular
    • interextracellular
    • intracellular
  81. supplements of Ca
    • Calcium Carbonate
    • Calcium Citrate
  82. Calcium provides rigidity in
    bones and teeth
  83. Functions of Calcium
    • Bone formation along with phosphorus, flourine, magnesium
    • blood clooting
    • growth
    • catalyst for biological reaction
    • tooth formation
  84. Bone Formation
    • Ca calcium
    • F flourine
    • Mg magnesium
    • P phosphorus
  85. Factors enhance Ca absorption
    • Vitamin D
    • acidity of the digestive mass
    • lactose
  86. Elderly are not at risk for
    decreasing Ca absorption by secretin acidity excess stomach acid
  87. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
    enhance filling bones coacation
  88. Weight baring exercise can reverse
    osteoporosis
  89. Factors depressing Ca absorption
    • oxalic acid (spinach, chocolate)
    • phytic acid (fiber)
  90. oxalic acid
    • spinach
    • chocolate
  91. phytic acid
    fiber
  92. RDA Ca intake
    • Adult: 1000 mg per day (800 mg per day before)
    • Postmenopausal women: 1200 - 1500 mg per day
  93. Ca adult per day
    1000 mg
  94. Ca post menopausal women per day
    1200 - 1500 mg
  95. bone loss begins around age
    35
  96. bone loss accelerates after
    menopause
  97. Food Sources of Ca
    • milk, yogurt, cheese
    • salmon
    • sardines
    • broccoli
    • almond
    • kala
  98. Milk is high in Ca low in Fe & vitamin C
  99. Sulfur found in
    cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
  100. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur
    which decrease risk of cancer
  101. decrease risk of cancer
    S

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