# Nutrition Exam II.txt

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1. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

200 protein kcal / 4 = 50g protein
2. 2000 kcal with 20% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
20% x (2000 kcal) = 400 protein kcal

400 protein kal / 4 = 100g praotein
3. Other term for food energy
• kcal
• calories
• kilojoules

1kcal = 4.1 kj (不考)
4. def. of Bomb Calorimeter (弹式量热)
1 kcal - amount of heat energy required to raise tempature of 1 kg of water ↑ 1°C

1 kcal = ↑ 1 °C
5. 10 g CHO, how many °C will have to be ↑ ?
10g CHO → ( x4 ) = 40 kcal =  ↑ 40 °C
6. def.  of BMR (Basal Metabolism Rate)
measure min. amount of energy need to carry on the vital body process (respiration呼吸, circulation sythesis of glands and hormones循环腺体和激素的合成, muscular contraction肌肉收缩, elasticity弹性)
7. convert lb.  → kg
lb. / 2.2 = ___kg

ex: ( 110lb. / 2.2 =  50    kg )
8. convert 440lb to kg ?
440lb / 2.2 = 200 kg
9. calculate BMR (基础代谢率)

Male:
Female:
Male:   1 * ___kg * 24°

Female :  0.9 * ___kg * 24°
10. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR
2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
首先一定要把 lb 换成 kg   才能算

• 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
•      1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

• 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
•      0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
11. factors affecting BMR (9个)
• 1). genetic body composition
• 2). body condition
• 3). gender
• 4). hormonal secretion
• 5). sleep
• 6). age
• 7). body temprature
• 8). nicotine from smoking
• 9). fasting or crash diets
12. Identical twins separated at birth have what in same ?
13. the major gland (腺) affects BMR
thyroid(甲状腺)------甲状腺的主要功能是合成甲状腺激素，调节机体代谢，
14. Hyperthyroidism
(↑↑↑)fast BMR so ↑ food intake
15. Hypothyroidism
(↓↓↓) slow BMR so ↓ food intake
16. age group affect BMR
• infancy
• childhood
• puberty
• pregnancy
• lactation increase BMR

BMR Begins to decrease in age 25
17. activity expenditure is determined by
• body weight
• intensity
• duration
18. def. of Thermic Effect of Food
production of heat that occurs as result of digestion, absorption, and metabolism
19. ideal body fat for female
15% - 22%
20. ideal body fat for male
12% - 18%
21. fat deposition influences health
apple vs. pear shape
22. quick standard for female
• 5 ' = 100#
23. quick standard female 5'5
100# + 25# = 125#
24. quick standard for male
• 5 ' = 105#
25. quick standard male 6'
• 1' = 12 inches
• 105# + 72# = 177#
26. cause of eating disorder
• increase technology
• increase junk food
• increase obesity
27. 3500 kcal = 1 #
28. lose weight fast lose
muscle
29. lose weight slowly lose
fat
30. ideal weight lose
0.5 - 2 # per week
31. the most quality way to achieve weight reduction
• eat quality food
• increase activity
• decrease food intake
32. Dieter must be retrained into
a new set of eating patterns
33. Hunger and Satiety are controlled by
hyperthalamus of the brain
34. def. of under weight
85% or below 85% of healthy body weight
35. Q: 100# is the healthy body weight, under weight?
equal or less than 85#
36. BMR
• measures the minimum amount of energy needed to carry on the Vital Body Processes
• respiration
• circulation
• sythesis of glands
• hormones
• muscular contraction
• elesticity
37. identical twins seperated birth have the same body type in adulthood
38. the body's need for energy
• BMR
• Activity
• Thermic effect of food
39. bomb calorimeter
1 kcal the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 Celsius
40. thermic effect of food
10% of BMR and Activity
41. base on a 2000 kcal diet , how many from protein
10%
42. how many grams of protein in a 2000 kcal diet
• 50g
• 200 kcal from protein food
• 200 / 4 = 50
43. major nutrients of fruit and vegetables
• Vitamin C
• Fiber
• Vitamin A
44. other term for food energy
• kcal
• calories
• kilojoules
45. decrease in Ascrobic Acid (Vitamin C)
decrease calcium
46. how much the U.S. population meet the goal of periment
1 %
47. most of body water is
Intracellular
48. Water makes up about how many percent of total body weight
60 %
49. Water makes up about how many percent of lean body mass ( muscle)
70
50. Water Intoxication
occurs when Large amount of water is consumed Without enough electrolytes to maintain water balance so Edema may occur
51. Edema
• increase water retention
• decrease urination
52. Functions of Water
• Solvent of Nutrients
• Growth Facilitator
• Catalyst for many biological reactions
• Lubricant of Joints
• Temperature Regulator
• Source of Trace Element
• Need Water to make urine to excrete waste
53. what nutrients found in hard water
Calcium & Magnesium
54. End products of metabolism are
• carbon dioxide
• energy
• Water
55. Water is eliminated from the body through
• urine
• feces
• skin
• lung
• digested juice
56. Vigorous Activity involved
large water losses from the body
57. recommendation for vigorous activity
1 cup water per 15 mins
58. the younger the person the more water is required
59. the percentage of body water turnover for infants is Greater than
60. 1 L water per 1000 kcal
2 L water per day ( 2000 kcal )
61. electrolytes maintain
water balance
62. what to eat if become dehydrogenate
• fruits
• salted food
• water
63. Sources of Sodium (Na)
• Salt (major source)
• baking soda, MSG
• food and water with naturally occuring sodium
64. Sodium present in
extracellular fluids
65. Functions of Sodium
keeps water from leaving the blood and entering the cell
66. ideal intake of sodium
b/w 1 - 3 g per day
67. average U.S. sodium diet
3 - 7 g per day
68. 1 tsp salt
2000 mg ( 2 g ) sodium
69. Potassium present in
intracellular fluids
70. Functions of Potassium
• catalyst in many biological reactions
• maintaining axid/base balance
• transmission of nerve impluses
• release of insulin from pancreas
• *treament of hypertension
• *main water balance
• *main osmotic pressure
71. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
• decrease in Na increase in K
• Na & K
72. Na & K both
• maintain water balance
• critical foe hypertention treament
• mainain osmotic pressure
73. requirements for Potassium
2 g per day
74. metabolism of Flourine
absorbed from the stomach
75. Food sources of Flourine
• Flourine added to water supply
• mackerel (fish)
76. Functions of Flourine
• gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
• gives protection against tooth decay
• too much Flourine = browm motting on teeth
77. too much Flourine
results browm motting on teeth
78. Functions of Chloride
in the stomach as part of digested juices (HCL)
79. minerals maintain water balance
Na & K
80. three compartments of mineral's maintenance of water balance
• intravascular
• interextracellular
• intracellular
81. supplements of Ca
• Calcium Carbonate
• Calcium Citrate
82. Calcium provides rigidity in
bones and teeth
83. Functions of Calcium
• Bone formation along with phosphorus, flourine, magnesium
• blood clooting
• growth
• catalyst for biological reaction
• tooth formation
84. Bone Formation
• Ca calcium
• F flourine
• Mg magnesium
• P phosphorus
85. Factors enhance Ca absorption
• Vitamin D
• acidity of the digestive mass
• lactose
86. Elderly are not at risk for
decreasing Ca absorption by secretin acidity excess stomach acid
87. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
enhance filling bones coacation
88. Weight baring exercise can reverse
osteoporosis
89. Factors depressing Ca absorption
• oxalic acid (spinach, chocolate)
• phytic acid (fiber)
90. oxalic acid
• spinach
• chocolate
91. phytic acid
fiber
92. RDA Ca intake
• Adult: 1000 mg per day (800 mg per day before)
• Postmenopausal women: 1200 - 1500 mg per day
1000 mg
94. Ca post menopausal women per day
1200 - 1500 mg
95. bone loss begins around age
35
96. bone loss accelerates after
menopause
97. Food Sources of Ca
• milk, yogurt, cheese
• salmon
• sardines
• broccoli
• almond
• kala
98. Milk is high in Ca low in Fe & vitamin C
99. Sulfur found in
cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
100. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur
which decrease risk of cancer
101. decrease risk of cancer
S

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 Author: Anonymous ID: 178502 Filename: Nutrition Exam II.txt Updated: 2012-10-20 01:49:00 Tags: nutrition zhanglin123 Folders: Description: nutrition exam 2 Show Answers:

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