Nutrition Exam II.txt

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Nutrition Exam II.txt
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2012-11-09 19:37:44
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Nutrition Exam II
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  1. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
    10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

    200 protein kcal / 4 = 50g protein
  2. 2000 kcal with 20% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams  protein in this diet?
    20% x (2000 kcal) = 400 protein kcal

    400 protein kal / 4 = 100g praotein
  3. Other term for food energy
    • kcal
    • calories
    • kilojoules


    1kcal = 4.1 kj (不考, 以防万一)
  4. major nutrients from Fruits and Vegetable group (3个)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    •  Fiber
  5. Meat / beans group have low in what (2个)
    low in Ascorbic Acid(抗坏血酸  也叫 vitamin C) and Calcium
  6. what % of U.S. population meets the goal of pyramid?
    1%
  7. def. of Bomb Calorimeter (弹式量热)
     1 kcal - amount of heat energy required to raise tempature of 1 kg of water ↑ 1°C

    1 kcal = ↑ 1 °C
  8. 10 g CHO, how many °C will have to be ↑ ?
    10g CHO → ( x4 ) = 40 kcal =  ↑ 40 °C
  9. the body's need for energy for (3个)
    • BMR
    • Activity
    • Thermic effect of food
  10. def.  of BMR (Basal Metabolism Rate)
    measure minimum amount of energy need to carry on the vital body process (respiration呼吸, circulation sythesis of glands and hormones循环腺体和激素的合成, muscular contraction肌肉收缩, elasticity弹性)
  11. convert lb.  → kg
    lb. / 2.2 = ___kg   

    ex: ( 110lb. / 2.2 =  50    kg )
  12. convert 440lb to kg ?
    440lb / 2.2 = 200 kg
  13. calculate BMR (基础代谢率)

    Male:
    Female:
    Male:   1 * ___kg * 24°

    Female :  0.9 * ___kg * 24°
  14. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR 
    2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
    首先一定要把 lb 换成 kg   才能算

    • 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
    •      1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

    • 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
    •      0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
  15. factors affecting BMR (9个)
    • 1). genetic body composition
    • 2). body condition
    • 3). gender
    • 4). hormonal secretion
    • 5). sleep
    • 6). age
    • 7). body temprature
    • 8). nicotine from smoking
    • 9). fasting or crash diets
  16. Identical twins separated at birth have what in same ?
    same  bodytype in adulthood
  17. the major gland (腺) affects BMR
    thyroid(甲状腺)------甲状腺的主要功能是合成甲状腺激素,调节机体代谢,
  18. Hyperthyroidism(甲状腺功能亢进症)
    (↑↑↑)fast BMR, so ↑ food intake
  19. Hypothyroidism(甲状腺功能减退症)
    (↓↓↓) slow BMR, so ↓ food intake
  20. age group affect BMR
    infancy, childhood, puberty(青春期), pregnancy, lactation哺乳期 (↑ BMR)

    BMR Begins to ↓ at age 25
  21. activity expenditure is determined by
    • body weight
    • intensity
    • duration
  22. def. of Thermic Effect of Food (食物热效应)
    production of heat that occurs as result of digestion,  absorption, and metabolism
  23. The Thermic Effect of Food 可消化多少热量?( Hint: 跟BMR 和 Activity 有关 )
    10% (BMR + Activity)

    ex:  10% (1200 + 600 ) = 180 kcal  

    • Thermic Effect of Food 消耗最少的热量
    • BMR 消耗最多的热量
  24. def. of Obesity
    20% above healthy body weight

    • ex: 150 lb (normal) x 20% = 30 lb.
    •       150 lb + 30 lb =180 lb. (obese)
  25. ideal body fat for female
    15% - 22%
  26. ideal body fat for male
    12% - 18%
  27. question : A female has 34%  body fat is considered ? (必考)
    answer: Overweight, Overfat, or Obese.  (其中一个答案都行)
  28. fat deposition influences health (2个体型)
    apple vs. pear shape  (apple shape 比较危险, 因为大多数的器官都在上半身)
  29. quick standard for female
    • 5 ' = 100 lb.
    • ech addional inch = +5 lb.
  30. quick standard female 5'5
    100lb. + 25lb. = 125lb.
  31. quick standard for male
    • 5 ' = 105 lb.
    • each additional inch = +6 lb.
  32. quick standard male 6'
    • 1' = 12 inches
    • 105lb. + 72lb. = 177lb.
  33. cause of Obesity
    ↑ technology  + ↑ junk food =  ↑ obesity
  34. Weight Reduction

    3500 kcal = 1 lb
  35. ex:  Joe  wants to lose 1 lb. / week, how many kcal/ day should be ↓?
    3500 lb.  /  7(days) = ↓ 500 kcal/ day
  36. ex: Joe eats 125 kcal / day / year, how many lbs will he gain / year?
    • 125 kcal x 365(days) = 45625 kcal
    • 45625 ÷ 3500 = ↑ 13 lb. / year
  37. If you lose weight fast, you lose _______ ?
    If you lose weight slowly, you lose _______?
    • lose weight fast, lose muscle
    • lose weight slowly, lose fat
  38. ideal weight lose
    0.5 - 2 lb. / week
  39. the most  successful way to achieve weight reduction
    • eat quality food
    •  ↑activity
    •  ↓food intake
  40. Dieter must be retrained into
    a new set of eating patterns
  41. Hunger and Satiety are controlled by
    hypothalamus of the brain (下丘脑)
  42. def. of Underweight
    ≤ 85% of healthy body weight
  43. Q: 100 lb. is the healthy body weight, underweight will be?
    ≤ 85lb
  44. Disadvantages of unhealthy underweight (7个)
    • Irregular body temperature (体温不规则)
    • ↓fertility(生育能力)
    • ↓immuity(免疫力)
    • ↓strength(力量)
    • ↑psychological pressure(心理压力)
    • ↑malnutrition(营养不良)
    • ↑fatigue(疲劳)
  45. most of body water is ____________
    Intracellular(inside the cell)
  46. Water makes up about 60% of total body weight
  47. Water makes up about 70% of lean body mass ( muscle)
  48. Water Intoxication
    occurs when Large amount of water is consumed Without enough electrolytes(电解质) to maintain water balance so Edema(水肿)may occur
  49. Edema(水肿)  (2个)
    • ↑ water retention
    • ↓ urination
  50. what are functions of water? (7个)
    • 1). Solvent of Nutrients (溶剂营养成分)
    • 2). Growth Facilitator (促进增长)
    • 3). Catalyst for many biological reactions (催化生物反应)
    • 4). Lubricant of Joints (润滑关节)
    • 5). Temperature Regulator (调节温度)
    • 6). Source of Trace Element (微量元素的来源)
    • 7). Need Water to make urine to excrete waste(需要水,使尿液排泄废物)
  51. what nutrients can found in hard water(含有高矿物质的水) (2个)
    Calcium & Magnesium
  52. End products of metabolism are? (3个)
    • carbon dioxide
    • energy
    • Water
  53. Water is eliminated from the body through? (5个)
    • urine
    • feces(屎)
    • skin
    • lung
    • digestive juices(消化液)
  54. Vigorous Activity (剧烈活动) involved
    large water losses from the body
  55. recommendation for vigorous activity
    1 cup water / 15 mins
  56. the younger the person the more water is required (faster BMR)
  57. the % of body water turnover for infants is Greater than for adults ( 小孩子大于大人)
  58. 1 L water per 1000 kcal
    2 L water per ( 2000 kcal )
  59. electrolytes maintain
    water balance
  60. what to eat if become dehydrated? (3个)
    • salty food
    • water
    • fruits
  61. electrolytes? (电解质)
    maintain water balance
  62. Sources of Sodium (Na)
    • Salt (major source)
    • baking soda, MSG(味精)
    • food and water with naturally occuring sodium
  63. Sodium present in
    extracellular fluids (outside cell liquid)
  64. Functions of Sodium
    keeps water leaving from the blood and entering the cell (avoiding edema 水肿)
  65. 1 tsp salt = ________
    2g (2000mg) sodium
  66. Potassium (K) present in
    intracellular fluids ( inside cell liquid)
  67. Functions of Potassium
    • *treament of hypertension
    • *maintain water balance
    • *maintain osmotic pressure
  68. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
    • Na & K ratio
    • decrease in Na increase in K
  69. Na & K both maintain
    • maintain water balance
    • maintain osmotic pressure (渗透压 ) U 形排水管
  70. Q: what electrolytes maintain water balance?
    Na & K
  71. requirements for Potassium per day
    2 g / day
  72. metabolism of Flourine ( F )
    absorbed from the stomach
  73. Food sources of Flourine
    • Flourine added to water supply
    • mackerel (fish)
  74. Functions of Flourine
    • gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
    • gives protection against tooth decay
    • too much Flourine = brown motting on teeth 褐色斑点
  75. too much Flourine
    results browm motting on teeth
  76. food source of Chloride (Cl)
    Salt (NaCl)
  77. Functions of Chloride (Cl)
    in the stomach as part of digestive juices (HCL)
  78. minerals maintain water balance
    Na & K
  79. three compartments of mineral's maintenance of water balance
    • intravascular (within blood)
    • inter / extracellular (betwwwn/ outsider cell)
    • intracellular (within cell)
  80. supplements of Ca
    • Calcium Carbonate(吃了会放屁)
    • Calcium Citrate
  81. Calcium provides rigidity in our ________  ( 让什么个坚硬)
    bones and teeth
  82. Functions of Calcium
    • Bone formation along with phosphorus, flourine,  magnesium, calcium
    • tooth formation
    • growth
    • blood clotting (血液凝固)
    • catalyst for biological reaction
  83. 4 mineral invovled Bone Formation
    • Ca calcium
    • F flourine
    • Mg magnesium
    • P phosphorus
  84. Factors enhance Ca absorption
    • Vitamin D
    • acidity of the digestive mass(消化系统质量酸度)
    • lactose
  85. Elderly are not at risk for
    decreasing Ca absorption by secretin excess stomach acid
  86. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
    enhance filling bones healthplication
  87. Weight bearing(负重) exercise can reverse
    osteoporosis (骨质疏松症)
  88. Factors of depressing Ca absorption
    • oxalic acid草酸 (spinach, chocolate)
    • phytic acid植酸 (fiber)
  89. oxalic acid
    • spinach
    • chocolate
  90. phytic acid
    fiber
  91. RDA Ca intake
    • Adult: 1000 mg per day (800 mg per day before)
    • Postmenopausal 绝经后women: 1200 - 1500 mg per day
  92. Ca adult per day
    1000 mg
  93. Ca post menopausal women per day
    1200 - 1500 mg
  94. bone loss begins around age _
    35
  95. bone loss accelerates after
    menopause
  96. Food Sources of Ca (6个)
    • diary (milk, yogurt, cheese)
    • salmon
    • sardines
    • broccoli
    • almond
    • kale
  97. Milk is high in __ low in __ & ____
    high in Ca low in Fe & Vitamin C
  98. def. of Osteoporosis (骨质疏松)
    bone mass or amount is diminished but is of normal composition and the bone can breake unprovoked 无端
  99. Osteoporosis creates spontaneous fractures of the ______________ 3个
    • hips
    • vertebrae (spine)
    • wrists
  100. cause of Osteoporosis (3个)
    • long standing dietary inadequacy
    • poor utilization or absorption
    • excrete (排泄) more Ca (Alcohol cause more Ca excretion)
  101. Osteomalacia known as adult _____, and low level of _____
    adult ricket (佝偻病)

    Vitamin D
  102. Phosphorus (P) is required for all ATP reactions
     ADP + P = ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
  103. what transpot lipid by making fat more soluble in the blood?
    Phosphorus lipids
  104. where we can find Phosphorus (P)?
    coke, 7up, roast beef, and milk
  105. soda disrupts the Ca / P ration which inhibits(decrease ) Ca absorption (鸡蛋可乐)
  106. Magnesium is absorbed on the bone surface (the 4 minerals involved in bone formation are ______________)
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Flourine
    • Magnesium
  107. Sources of Magnesium
    fish, nuts, soybeans, and spinach
  108. Sulfur found in
    cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
  109. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur which decrease_____________
    which decrease risk of cancer

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