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Name some of the characteristics of the history of child welfare in the 1700's.
- -Often free labor, not protection
- Outdoor Relief
- -Food, clothing, maybe money to help the parents avoid the almshouse or debtor's prison
Name some of the characteristics of the history of child welfare in the 1800's.
- Civil War
- -Orphan Trains
- First child welfare case
- -The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 1975
Name some of the characteristics of the history of child welfare in the 1900's.
- State laws to prevent child abuse and neglect were passed
- 1910- National conference on the needs of dependent children
- 1912- Federal Children's Bureau
- The first Children's Bill of Rights
In the 1900's what Act was formed in relavance to child welfare and what were some of the things it in turn established?
- Social Security Act of 1935
- Established Title IV-B - Grants to states from the federal government for child welfare
- Title IV-D - Child Support
- Title IV-E - Benefits to children in foster care
- Established ADC (then AFDC and now TANF)
- *Benefits were denied to unsuitable homes*
In the 1900's the _____ was formed and stated that states must provide _____ to make ______or children must be ____.
- Flemming Rule
- the home suitable
- moved to a more suitable home
In 1961 the Flemming Rule becomes statute as an _____. Then created the ______ and established _____ from the federal government.
- amendment to the Social Security Act
- foster care component of ADC
- matching funds
CAPTA, 1974 established the _____. Which provided ____and clearinghouse on _____.
- National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect
- child abuse programs
CAPTA, 1974 established what law and to who is the law bound?
- Mandatory repoting on child abuse and neglect
- All professionals
- All citizens (TN, 2006)
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
- Free and appropriate education
- IEP for ages 3-18
- Records of IEP's
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978
Funded Adoption Opportunities Program to help facilitate adoption of children with special needs (Adoption Assistance)
Indian Child Welfare Act, 1978
- Standards for placing Indian children in foster or adoptive homes
- Grants jurisdiction over custody proceedings involving an Indian child to the tribe
Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980
- Required states to provide adoption assistance for a child who is AFDC (now TANF) eligible and has special needs
- Reasonable efforts to prevent placement and reunify
- States must show remaining in the home was contrary to the child's welfare
- Defined "special needs"
PL-98-473-1985, Title II, Division II
- Federally funded missing children programs
- Required no juvenile can be detained or confined in jail or any lock up with adults
- Required states to include family members in programs to address delinquency
- Required provison of treatment for juveniles with dependence on drugs or alcohol
Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act of 1988
- Funds for post-adoption services
- Required programs to increase the number of minority children in adoptive homes and emphasized recruiting minority foster/adoptive homes
Family Support Act of 1988
Amended Title IV of the Social Security Act to encourage and assist needy children and parents to obtain education, training and employment needed to avoid long term welfare
The purpose is to eliminate delays in the placement of children for adoption or into foster care when at all possible. Delaying or denying placement on the basis of race, color or national origin of the adoptive/foster parents or the child involved is prohibited. Requires diligent recruitment of potential foster homes and adoptive families who reflect the ethnic and racial diversity of the children for foster/adoptive homes are needed.
- 1994-Multi Ethnic Placement Act
PRWORA of 1996
States must give preference to adult relatives (kinship care) over non-relatives (foster care) when choosing placement for a child who cannot safely remain at home
Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 seeks to promote _____, ______, ______ of children in foster care _______ placement of children in care, and ______ of the child welfare system. What were some of the issues that led to this Act?
- safety, permanency, well being
- accelerate permanent
- increase accountability
- Remained too long in foster care
- Child welfare was biased toward family preservation at the expense of safety and well being
- Too few adoptions, promotes permanence through adoption
- Time limited reunification
- Increased state accountability for outcomes
The Foster Care Independence Act, 1999 (Who?); _____ to states to assist youths to _____. Recognizes the need for special help for _____. Establishes _____ for states in _____.
- John H. Chaffee
- Increases funds
- to make the trasition form foster care to independent living
- youth ages 18-21 who have left foster care
- implementing the independent living programs
Promoting Safe and Stable Families, 2001
Title ___ of the _____. Primary goals are_____. States are to spend most of the funding for services that address: _____.
- Social Security Act
- Prevent unnecessary seperation
- Improve quality of care and services
- Ensure permanency through reunification, adoption, or other living arrangement
- family support, family preservation, time-limited family reunification and adoption promotion and support
The Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003 amended _____, requires subjects of CPS investigations _____, and requires CPS staff be _____.
- CAPTA, 1974
- be informed of the allegations against them
- trained in their legal duties to protect the rights and safety of children and families
Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act, 2008...
____ funding for _____, continues that funding to the age ____, ____ from AFDC eligibility, increases _____, allows ____ to access funds directly, creates _____ grants.
*Additional requirements for states related to _____.*
- subsidized guardianship
- Delinks Adoption Assistance
- adoption incentives
- "Family Connections"
- notification of relatives, placement with siblings, child education and health
Erikson's Eght Stages of Development
(Today Auto Initiated Involvement In Intimate Gazes Incedently)
- Trust vs. Mistrust
- Autonomy vs. Shame
- Initiave vs. Guilt
- Industry vs. Inferiortiy
- Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Integrity vs. Despair
Michael B. v. Carter
- 1995 class action suit regulating the accounting of benefits of children in state custody who receives SS and SSI and SSDI
- Seperate accounting for each child (individual accounts)
Historical Perspective of CPS
- Use of laudanum
- Child labor
History of CPS (Post Revolutionary War)
??The First CPS Investigation??
- Etta Wheeler, 9 years old
- adopted at 2 no follow up to care
- isolated, abused, often locked up
- no legal means to rescue the child
- Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to animals
- Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was established in 1875
Battered Child Syndrome
X-ray technology allowed doctors to see patterns of injuries that were inflicted rather than accidental
- National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect
- Mandated reporters
Criteria for CPS/DCS involvement
- Age of the child birth to age 18
- or alleged sex abuse of a child under 13
- alleged sex abuse of a child between 13-18 if the alleged abuser is a parent caretaker, relative or other person in the home; educator, volunteer or employee who was responsible for the child or any perosn providing treatment, care, or supervision of the child
- non-accidental physical trauma or injury inflicted by a parent or caretaker of a child
- it includes a parent's or caretaker's failure to protect a child from another person who perpetrated physical abuse on a child
What are some "Red Flags"?
- Spiral fractures or bread basket fractures
- Unexplained bruises, welts, bite marks, burns
- Explanation does not match the injury
- Location of the injury (Thighs, genitals, buttocks, and torso)
- a parent or caretakers's omission in relation to a child's needs
- considered contextually based on age and development
List of effects of child abuse
- child fatality
- physical impairment
- cognitive impaiment
- social impairment
Factors impacting the effect of child abuse
- Age of the child at the time of maltreatment
- Severity and duration of the maltreatment
- The type of maltreatment suffered
- Child's traits
Describe some of the characteristics of a child's traits when discussing the factors impacting the effect of child abuse
- intellectual ability
- postive attitude
- internal locus of control
- external protective factors (caring adult outside the abusive home, family stability, access to resources)
Doe v. Bradley was a class action law suit on behalf of _____ in DCS custody.
mentally retarded juveniles
In Doe v. Bradley if a juveniles IQ was below 70 they had to be ______. They also had to recieve a notice of _______.
- reviewed before recieving prison time
- disciplinary rules and possible sanctions
Before the lawsuit of Doe v. Bradley what was happening to mentally retarted juvenile offenders?
- they were getting worse punishments
- locked up without counseling
- living conditions were substancial
- weren't teaching them how to clean
- weren't putting them in school due to no funds for special education
What were some of the things that were required after Doe v. Bradley
- Grievance procedures
- medical/dental/psychological services
- appropriate living conditions
- provide education
- training for staff
What are some of the reasons for out of home placement?
- physical abuse
- physical neglect
- substance abuse by the parent
- instability due to parental mental illness
- domestic violence
- incarceration of the parent
What are some of the characteristics of foster care?
- public, private non-profit, private for profit
- by court order or voluntary
- daily care is transfered from the parent
- full time
- may be in a relative's home, a non-relative's home, therapeutic resource home, group home, or residential setting
- it is temporary
Principles of foster care(1)
- responsibility to preserve the child's home and if that is not possible, place in kinship or extended family
- if parenting cannot be restored and kinship cannot be sustained, foster care provides nurturing in a family setting
- placement is based on the needs of the child and family (least restrictive)
Principles of foster care (2)
- the whole family is the client
- the resource caregive is an integral part of the team participating in permanency planning and efforts toward reunification as well as meeting the child's basic needs
- rights of the parents must be balanced with the right of the child to be safe and have permanency
What is team decision making
involving the family and community in the child welfare decision making
What are the components of team decision making
- facilitator role
- the role of the community
- importance of straight talk
- team brain storming
- good decision (max info, active participatio, parental involvement)
Who does team decision making benefit
Bowlby stages of grief in well attached young children:
Kebler-Ross five stages of grief
The Brian A v Sundquist lawsuit was a class action suit filed in Federal District Court on ______. It was for the _____.
- behalf of every child who was or will be in the care of the state
- inadequicies of the foster care system
The Brian A lawsuit led to ____.
- setting up monitering, gave us TAC, required DCS to set up a quality assurance program (Monitering Outcomes)
- TN ordered to make corrections (more racial equality), had to change screening and responding or investigating.