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What does exocytosis do?
Used to send materials out of the cell in bulk.
Endocytosis and Exocytosis both require
Cellular energy, so they are both classified as active transport processes.
What is the process to have the material be expelled from the cell that is packaged into a vesicle.
The phospholipid bilayer of the vesicle then fuses with the phospholipid bilayer on the surface of the cell, and this allows the exported material to flow out of the cell.
Another use of exocytosis is to allow
the cells to "fly the flag." The flag is "sewn" inside the cell, then packaged into a vesicle.
the cytosol plus organelles.
made up of water, solutes, suspended particles, lipid droplets and glycogen granules.
Solutes found in the cytosol include?
K+, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, PO43 -, HPO42-, H2PO4-, other ions, sugar monomers and polymers, amino acid monomers and polymers, and RNA.
Some solutes are made other places and then exported
into the cytosol (for example, RNA is made in the nucleus and then used in the cytosol).
DNA is found only in the nucleus and in mitochondria but not in
What organelle(s) have a functional class of Structural Integrity?
What organelle(s) have a functional class of Motility?
What organelle(s) have a functional class of Sythesis?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What organelle(s) have a functional class of Storage and Digestion?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What organelle(s) have a functional class of Energy Production?
What are the five main divisions of organelle funtions?
- Structural integrity
- Storage and Digestion
- Energy Production
The business of the cell is carried out by the
Cytoskeleton is made up of
a number of different proteins that form thread- or tube- like structures.
Cytoskeletal Proteins smallest to largest
Microfilaments- actin (smallest)
Intermediat filament- keratin, vimentin, neurofilament protein, lamins
Microtubule- tubulin +, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) (largest)
What are the two structures that are found as surface extensions of the cell that are supported by the cytoskeleton?
cell extensions that carry out functions of changing shape.
When a cell wants to move along a surface, sampling its environment as it goes, it uses a
Digestive enzymes and cell "flags" form a sugar-protein coat called the
What are microvilli
little shaggy hairs that a cell can increase its surface area with.
The intestinal microvilli provide a tremendous increase in surface area, which serves
to increase absorption of nutrients.
Inside each microvillus
there is a core of actin microfilaments
True or False:
Actin filaments are involved in the extension of lamellipodia
How are Microfilaments assembled
made of globular actin protein assembled into two strands
How are Microtubules assembled?
25 nm diameter
hollow tube made of two different forms of tubulin protein
How are Intermediate Filament assembled
10 nm diameter
many different proteins can make these.
The cytoskeleton is needed, not only to keep the structure of individual cells, but as
a framework for the cell to pull against if it has to move itself or be moved by other cells.
Microfilimants and intermediat filaments are
What are used like "railroad tracks" in the cell to move larger particles from one place to another?
Centrosome build the
microtubules that are used to pull chromosomes apart when cells divide.
Centrosomes are an example of
Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs)
Microtubule-organizing centers are
cell locations where microtubules are built, so they represent the origin of microtubules.
Centrosomes are comprised of
What is a spindle apparatus?
a rigid structure which lines up, and then divides, chromosomes.
the packed genetic material that must be evenly split between the two daughter cells.