Module 4

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Module 4
2012-12-10 19:53:27
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  1. What does exocytosis do?
    Used to send materials out of the cell in bulk.
  2. Endocytosis and Exocytosis both require
    Cellular energy, so they are both classified as active transport processes.
  3. What is the process to have the material be expelled from the cell that is packaged into a vesicle.
    The phospholipid bilayer of the vesicle then fuses with the phospholipid bilayer on the surface of the cell, and this allows the exported material to flow out of the cell.
  4. Another use of exocytosis is to allow
    the cells to "fly the flag."  The flag is "sewn" inside the cell, then packaged into a vesicle.
  5. Cytoplasm is
    the cytosol plus organelles.
  6. Cytosol is
    made up of water, solutes, suspended particles, lipid droplets and glycogen granules.
  7. Solutes found in the cytosol include?
    K+, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, PO43 -, HPO42-, H2PO4-, other ions, sugar monomers and polymers, amino acid monomers and polymers, and RNA.
  8. Some solutes are made other places and then exported
    into the cytosol (for example, RNA is made in the nucleus and then used in the cytosol).
  9. DNA is found only in the nucleus and in mitochondria but not in
  10. What organelle(s) have a functional class of Structural Integrity?

  11. What organelle(s) have a functional class of Motility?

  12. What organelle(s) have a functional class of Sythesis?

    Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    Golgi complex
  13. What organelle(s) have a functional class of Storage and Digestion?
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum



  14. What organelle(s) have a functional class of Energy Production?
  15. What are the five main divisions of organelle funtions?
    • Structural integrity
    • Motility
    • Synthesis
    • Storage and Digestion
    • Energy Production
  16. The business of the cell is carried out by the
  17. Cytoskeleton is made up of
    a number of different proteins that form thread- or tube- like structures.
  18. Cytoskeletal Proteins smallest to largest
    Microfilaments- actin (smallest)

    Intermediat filament- keratin, vimentin, neurofilament protein, lamins

    Microtubule- tubulin +, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) (largest)
  19. What are the two structures that are found as surface extensions of the cell that are supported by the cytoskeleton?

  20. Lamellipodia are
    cell extensions that carry out functions of changing shape.
  21. When a cell wants to move along a surface, sampling its environment as it goes, it uses a
  22. Digestive enzymes and cell "flags" form a sugar-protein coat called the
  23. What are microvilli
    little shaggy hairs that a cell can increase its surface area with.
  24. The intestinal microvilli provide a tremendous increase in surface area, which serves
    to increase absorption of nutrients.
  25. Inside each microvillus
    there is a core of actin microfilaments
  26. True or False:
    Actin filaments are involved in the extension of lamellipodia
  27. How are Microfilaments assembled
    8nm diameter

    made of globular actin protein assembled into two strands
  28. How are Microtubules assembled?
    25 nm diameter

    hollow tube made of two different forms of tubulin protein
  29. How are Intermediate Filament assembled
    10 nm diameter

    many different proteins can make these.
  30. The cytoskeleton is needed, not only to keep the structure of individual cells, but as
    a framework for the cell to pull against if it has to move itself or be moved by other cells.
  31. Microfilimants and intermediat filaments are
    thread-like structures
  32. What are used like "railroad tracks" in the cell to move larger particles from one place to another?
  33. Centrosome build the
    microtubules that are used to pull chromosomes apart when cells divide.
  34. Centrosomes are an example of
    Microtubule-organizing centers  (MTOCs)
  35. Microtubule-organizing centers are
    cell locations where microtubules are built, so they represent the origin of microtubules.
  36. Centrosomes are comprised of
    pericentriolar material

  37. What is a spindle apparatus?
    a rigid structure which lines up, and then divides, chromosomes.
  38. Chromosomes are
    the packed genetic material that must be evenly split between the two daughter cells.