Biology CP

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alessandrayoung
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178545
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Biology CP
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2012-10-20 11:04:20
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  1. Polar Molecule
    molucule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges.
  2. Hydrogen bond
    type of chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom that has a covalent link with one of the elctronegative atoms (F,N,O) forms an electrostatic link with another electronegative atom in the same or another molecule.
  3. Peptide bond
    covalent bond formed by joining the carboxyl group of one amino acid group of another with the removal of a molecule of water.
  4. Metabolism
    the biological processes of converting food into energy.
  5. Diffusion
    act of spreading out or state of being so diffused.
  6. Dynamic equilibrium
    the state of balance achieved by two forces in motion.
  7. Capillary action
    the tendency of a liquid to rise in narrow tubes.
  8. Cohesion
    water molecules clind to one another by the way of hydrogen bonds.
  9. Adhesion
    act or state of attaching or uniting.
  10. Isomer
    a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight.
  11. Polymer
    a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.
  12. Monomer
    molecule of low molecular weight capable of reacting with identical or different molecules of low molecular weight to form a polymer.
  13. Carbohydrate
    organic compound used by cells to store and release energy; composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  14. Lipid
    • large organic compound made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen; are insoluble in water and used by cells for energy storage, insulation and protective coatings such as membranes.
    • Examples: fats, waxes and steriods
  15. Protein
    large complex polymer essential to all life composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfer; provides structure for tissues and organs and helps carry out cell metabolism.
  16. Amino acid
    type of organic compound from which proteins are made.
  17. Enzyme
    type of protein found in all living things that changes the rate of chemical reactions.
  18. Nucleic acid
    complex biomolecules such as RNA and DNA that store cellular information in cells in the form of a code.
  19. Nucleotide
    subunits of nucleic acid formed from a simple suger, a phosphate group and nitrougous base.
  20. Auto
    self
  21. Bio
    life
  22. Carn
    flesh
  23. Dis
    not
  24. Hetero
    different
  25. Homo
    same
  26. Hydro
    water
  27. Omni
    all,every
  28. Photo
    light
  29. Proto
    first
  30. A-
    not, without
  31. An-
    not, without
  32. Anti-
    against, opposite
  33. Bi-
    two
  34. De-
    from, down, away
  35. Di-
    two
  36. Eco-
    environment
  37. End/endo-
    within, inside
  38. Ex-
    out, away, from
  39. Hyper-
    over, above
  40. Hypo-
    below, less than
  41. Mono-
    one
  42. Poly-
    many
  43. Tri-
    three
  44. -ology
    the study of
  45. Biology
    the study of life that seeks to provide an understanding of the natural world.
  46. Seven Characteristics of Life
    • Grow
    • Organization
    • Respond
    • Adapt
    • Cells
    • Energy
    • Reproduce
  47. Metabolism
    refers to the chemical reactions tat occur within an organism.
  48. Substances of Life
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Water
  49. Properties of Water
    • Polar
    • Cohesion/Adhesion
    • Resists temperature change
    • Expands when frozen
  50. Diffusion
    • the movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration
    • slow process
  51. Hydrophilic
    means water loving
  52. Surface tension
    a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.
  53. Osmosis
    diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane depending on the concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane.
  54. Cell
    a structural and functional unit of all living organisms.
  55. Cell/plasma membrane
    a thin layer of protein that surrounds or covers the plasma.
  56. Cell wall
    the rigid and flexible layer that surrounds the cell.
  57. Centriole
    cell structure found in eukaryotic cells.
  58. Chloroplast
    a plastid that contains chlorophyll.
  59. Cytoplasm
    gel-like matter that resides betweeen the cell membrane holding all the cell's organelles.
  60. Mitochondria
    rod shaped organelles that are responsible for converting oxygen and nutrients into usable energy.
  61. Nuclear membrane
    double-layered membrane that encloses the nucleus.
  62. Ribosome
    they sinthesize proteins.
  63. Vacuole
    found in cytoplasm. they provide storage, structural support, transport substances and aid in waste.
  64. Eukaryote
    unicellular or mullticellular organism such as yeast, plants and animals composed of eukaryotic cells which contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
  65. Organelle
    membrane-bound structure with particular functions within eukaryotic cells.
  66. Prokaryote
    • unicellular organism such as bacteria each of which is composed of a prokaryotic cell.
    • lack internal membane-bound structures.
  67. Cromatin
    • genetic information (DNA)
    • coils to form chromosomes
  68. Cilia
    • short hair-like structures used in movement.
    • many
  69. Flagella
    • long har-like structures used in movement
    • usually only two or three present on the organism
  70. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • intracellular delivery used for the transport of cellular materials (protein).
    • may be rough or smooth due to presence of ribosomes.
  71. Golgi apparatus
    process, packages and secretes proteins made by the cell.
  72. Lysosome
    • sac containing enzymes needed for digestion.
    • usually found only in animal cells.
  73. Hooke
    first to see dead cork cells.
  74. Van Leewenhoek
    first to see living cells.
  75. Matthias Schleiden
    studied plants and determined that all plants are made of cells.
  76. Theodor Schwann
    studied animals and said that all animals are made of cells.
  77. Light microscope
    uses a beam of light to magnify an object 1500x larger than the actual size.
  78. Compound light microscope
    uses a series of lens to magnify 1500x
  79. Electron Microscope
    uses beams of electrons to magnify up to 500,000x.
  80. Homeostasis
    process of maintaining equilibrium in cells' internal environment.
  81. Fluid mosaic model
    structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.
  82. Active transport
    energy-enpending process by which cells transport materials across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient.
  83. Exocytosis
    active transport process by which materials are secreted or expelled from a cell.
  84. Endocytosis
    active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell.
  85. Facilitated diffusion
    passive transport of materials across a plasma membrane by transport proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.
  86. Hypotonic solution
    solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than te cencentration inside the cell; causes cell to to swell and possibly burst as water enters the cell.
  87. Hypertonic solution
    solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell; causes the cell to shrink as water leaves the cell.
  88. Isotonic solution
    solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside a cell.
  89. Passive transport
    movement of particles across cell membranes by diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move particles across the membrane.
  90. Mitosis
    period of nuclear cell division in which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes.
  91. Cell cycle
    continuous sequence of growth and division in a cell.
  92. Centromere
    cell structure that joins two ister chromatids of a chromosome.
  93. Sister chromatids
    identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome formed during the prophase stage of mitosis; the halves are held together by a centromere.
  94. Cancer
    uncontrolled cell division that may be caused by environmental factors and/or changes in enzyme production in the cell cycle.
  95. Gene
    segment of DNA that controls the protein production and the cell cycle.
  96. Spindle fibers
    protein structures that separate the chromosomes into daughter cells using cell division.
  97. Cytokinesis
    when the cell splits in half.
  98. DNA
    An organic substance that encodes and carries genetic information and is the fundamental element of heredity.
  99. Interphase
    cell growth phase where a cell increases in size, carries on metabolism and duplicates chromosomes prior to division.
  100. Prophase
    first and longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomes.
  101. Metaphase
    short second phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle and chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiber.
  102. Anaphase
    third phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microtubules.
  103. Telophase
    final phase of mitosis during which new cells prepare for their own independent existence.

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