molucule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges.
type of chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom that has a covalent link with one of the elctronegative atoms (F,N,O) forms an electrostatic link with another electronegative atom in the same or another molecule.
covalent bond formed by joining the carboxyl group of one amino acid group of another with the removal of a molecule of water.
the biological processes of converting food into energy.
act of spreading out or state of being so diffused.
the state of balance achieved by two forces in motion.
the tendency of a liquid to rise in narrow tubes.
water molecules clind to one another by the way of hydrogen bonds.
act or state of attaching or uniting.
a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight.
a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.
molecule of low molecular weight capable of reacting with identical or different molecules of low molecular weight to form a polymer.
organic compound used by cells to store and release energy; composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
large organic compound made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen; are insoluble in water and used by cells for energy storage, insulation and protective coatings such as membranes.
Examples: fats, waxes and steriods
large complex polymer essential to all life composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfer; provides structure for tissues and organs and helps carry out cell metabolism.
type of organic compound from which proteins are made.
type of protein found in all living things that changes the rate of chemical reactions.
complex biomolecules such as RNA and DNA that store cellular information in cells in the form of a code.
subunits of nucleic acid formed from a simple suger, a phosphate group and nitrougous base.
from, down, away
out, away, from
below, less than
the study of
the study of life that seeks to provide an understanding of the natural world.
Seven Characteristics of Life
refers to the chemical reactions tat occur within an organism.
Substances of Life
Properties of Water
Resists temperature change
Expands when frozen
the movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration
means water loving
a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane depending on the concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane.
a structural and functional unit of all living organisms.
a thin layer of protein that surrounds or covers the plasma.
the rigid and flexible layer that surrounds the cell.
cell structure found in eukaryotic cells.
a plastid that contains chlorophyll.
gel-like matter that resides betweeen the cell membrane holding all the cell's organelles.
rod shaped organelles that are responsible for converting oxygen and nutrients into usable energy.
double-layered membrane that encloses the nucleus.
they sinthesize proteins.
found in cytoplasm. they provide storage, structural support, transport substances and aid in waste.
unicellular or mullticellular organism such as yeast, plants and animals composed of eukaryotic cells which contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
membrane-bound structure with particular functions within eukaryotic cells.
unicellular organism such as bacteria each of which is composed of a prokaryotic cell.
lack internal membane-bound structures.
genetic information (DNA)
coils to form chromosomes
short hair-like structures used in movement.
long har-like structures used in movement
usually only two or three present on the organism
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
intracellular delivery used for the transport of cellular materials (protein).
may be rough or smooth due to presence of ribosomes.
process, packages and secretes proteins made by the cell.
sac containing enzymes needed for digestion.
usually found only in animal cells.
first to see dead cork cells.
first to see living cells.
studied plants and determined that all plants are made of cells.
studied animals and said that all animals are made of cells.
uses a beam of light to magnify an object 1500x larger than the actual size.
Compound light microscope
uses a series of lens to magnify 1500x
uses beams of electrons to magnify up to 500,000x.
process of maintaining equilibrium in cells' internal environment.
Fluid mosaic model
structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.
energy-enpending process by which cells transport materials across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient.
active transport process by which materials are secreted or expelled from a cell.
active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell.
passive transport of materials across a plasma membrane by transport proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.
solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than te cencentration inside the cell; causes cell to to swell and possibly burst as water enters the cell.
solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell; causes the cell to shrink as water leaves the cell.
solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside a cell.
movement of particles across cell membranes by diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move particles across the membrane.
period of nuclear cell division in which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes.
continuous sequence of growth and division in a cell.
cell structure that joins two ister chromatids of a chromosome.
identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome formed during the prophase stage of mitosis; the halves are held together by a centromere.
uncontrolled cell division that may be caused by environmental factors and/or changes in enzyme production in the cell cycle.
segment of DNA that controls the protein production and the cell cycle.
protein structures that separate the chromosomes into daughter cells using cell division.
when the cell splits in half.
An organic substance that encodes and carries genetic information and is the fundamental element of heredity.
cell growth phase where a cell increases in size, carries on metabolism and duplicates chromosomes prior to division.
first and longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomes.
short second phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle and chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiber.
third phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microtubules.
final phase of mitosis during which new cells prepare for their own independent existence.