Early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell
The engulfed cell formed symbiotic relationship with host cell, becoming an endosymbiont
Merged into single organism
Support for endosymbiont theory.
Contain own ribosomes and circular DNA molecules attached to inner membranes
- DNA programs synthesis of some of their own proteins
Autonomous (grow and reproduce within cell)
a) sites of__, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, etc.
b) Which cells have these?
all eukaryotic cells; number varies on activity
Structure of mitochondria
two membranes: phospholipid bilayer w. variety of proteins
- outer: smooth
- inner: convoluted with infoldings called cristae, which give a higher surface area--> enhancing productivity (structure meets function)
Explain inner membrane of mitochondria.
1. Divides mitochondrion into two internal compartments:
a. Intermembrane space: narrow region between inner and outer membranes
b. Mitochondrial matrix
i. Contains different enzymes (catalyze some cellular respiration steps), DNA, and ribosomes
They move around, fuse, or divide into two
i.Chloroplasts are the sites of __ 1.Convert __energy to __energy 2.Contain __, __, and other molecules that function in photosynthesis 3.__-shaped; changeable; mobile; divide
1.Contents of chloroplast are partitioned from cytosol by envelope consisting of __separated by __ 2.Membranous system in the form of flattened, interconnected sacs called __ a.May be stacked like poker chips, called __ i.Fluid outside the thylakoid is the __, which contains __ 3.Membranes divide chloroplast into three compartments: a. ___ b.__ c. ___
DNA and ribosomes and enzymes
1.Specialized member of __, plant organelles a.__is colorless organelle that stores __in roots ad tubers b.__has __that give fruits and flowers their orange and yellow hues
a.Peroxismes i.Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane ii.Contain enzymes that remove __ from __and transfer to __to produce __
Functions of Peroxisomes:
1) use oxygen to break fatty acids that are transported to mitochondria and used as fuel
2) detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds by transferring H from poisons to oxygen in liver
3) contain enzymes that convert hydrogen peroxide into water= structure meets function becauase away from other cell compponents
1) found in fat storing tissues of plant seeds
2) initiate conversion of FA to sugar
How do perxisomes grow larger?
by incorporating proteins made in cytosol and Er and lipids within self