Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
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What is the evolutionary origin?
- endosymbiont theory
- Early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell
- The engulfed cell formed symbiotic relationship with host cell, becoming an endosymbiont
- Merged into single organism
Support for endosymbiont theory.
- Two membranes
- Contain own ribosomes and circular DNA molecules attached to inner membranes
- - DNA programs synthesis of some of their own proteins
- Autonomous (grow and reproduce within cell)
a) sites of__, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, etc.
b) Which cells have these?
- cell respiration
- all eukaryotic cells; number varies on activity
Structure of mitochondria
- two membranes: phospholipid bilayer w. variety of proteins
- - outer: smooth
- - inner: convoluted with infoldings called cristae, which give a higher surface area--> enhancing productivity (structure meets function)
Explain inner membrane of mitochondria.
- 1. Divides mitochondrion into two internal compartments:
- a. Intermembrane space: narrow region between inner and outer membranes
- b. Mitochondrial matrix
- i. Contains different enzymes (catalyze some cellular respiration steps), DNA, and ribosomes
- They move around, fuse, or divide into two
i. Chloroplasts are the sites of __
1. Convert __energy to __energy
2. Contain __, __, and other molecules that function in photosynthesis
3. __-shaped; changeable; mobile; divide
1. Contents of chloroplast are partitioned from cytosol by envelope consisting of __separated by __
2. Membranous system in the form of flattened, interconnected sacs called __
a. May be stacked like poker chips, called __
i. Fluid outside the thylakoid is the __, which contains __
3. Membranes divide chloroplast into three compartments:
- two membranes
- intermembrane space
- DNA and ribosomes and enzymes
- Intermembrane space
- thylakoid space
1. Specialized member of __, plant organelles
a. __is colorless organelle that stores __in roots ad tubers
b. __has __that give fruits and flowers their orange and yellow hues
i. Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane
ii. Contain enzymes that remove __ from __and transfer to __to produce __
- hydrogen atoms
Functions of Peroxisomes:
- 1) use oxygen to break fatty acids that are transported to mitochondria and used as fuel
- 2) detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds by transferring H from poisons to oxygen in liver
- 3) contain enzymes that convert hydrogen peroxide into water= structure meets function becauase away from other cell compponents
- 1) found in fat storing tissues of plant seeds
- 2) initiate conversion of FA to sugar
How do perxisomes grow larger?
by incorporating proteins made in cytosol and Er and lipids within self
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