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What are the dates and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions”?
- 600 BCE-600CE
- Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies
The codification of the ________ scriptures further associated Judaism with monotheism.
The Hebrew scriptures influenced the cultural and legal traditions of what area?
The conquering of vairous Jewish states at different points in time.
These conquests contributed to th growth of the communities around the Mediterranean and Middle east.
Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the __________ religions, which later became known as __________.
What core beliefs did Buddhism preach? What scriptures were they recorded in?
- Core beliefs preached were desire, suffering and the search for enligthenment.
- Recorded in sutras.
Buddhism was, in part, a reaction to ____________.
Vedic beliefs and rituals
Emperor _______________ of _____________ supported the spread of Buddhism. Buddhism was also spread through ___________________________.
Ashoka of Maurya through the efforts of missionaries, merchants and schools to teach the core beliefs.
The philosophical belief system of ___________ came out of China.
Confucianism’s main goal was:
Promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships
What are the core beliefs of Daoism?
Balance between humans and nature assuming that the Chinese political system would be indirectly altered
What role did Daoism play in the development of Chinese culture?
It influenced the development through medical theories/practices, pottery, metallurgy and architecture
Christianity drew on which religious tradition?
Initially, Christianity rejected _______________ influences.
Roman and Hellenistic
Christianity initially spread through ____________, and later through the support of ____________________.
Missionaries/ merchants and later through the support of the Emperor Constatine of Rome.
What are the cored ideas of Greco-Roman philosophy/science?
Logic, empirical observations, the nature of political power and hierarchy
What role did belief systems play in social systems?
Gender roles, Buddism and Christianity encouraged monastic life, Confucianism emphasized filial piety
What belief systems continued alongside the codified, written belief systems? Why did these persist outside of core civilizations?
Shamanism, animism and ancestor veneration. They persisted because of their dayily reliance on the natural world.
Which major art forms were influenced by belief systems? Which important examples are provided in the Key Concept outline?
Literature, drama, architecture and sculpture. Examples include: Greek plays and Indian epics.
What are the dates and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “The Development of States and Empires”?
Organization and reorganization of Human Societies- 600BCE-600CE
The number and size ofkey states and empires grew dramatically by:
Imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states
What are the 6 key states/empires and their locations?
- SW Asia: Persian Empires
- East Asia: Quin and Han Empires
- South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires
- Mediterranean region: Phoenicia/colonies, Greek city-states/colonies, Hellenistic and Roman Empires
- Mesoamerica; Teotihuacan, Maya city states
- Andean South American: Moche
Empires in SW Asia
Persian: Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid
Empires in east Asia
Quin and Han empires
Maurya and Gupta empires
Empires in the Mediterranean region
Phoenicia/colonies, Greek city-states/colonies, Hellenistic and Roman
Empires in Mesoamerica
Teotihuacan, Maya city-states
Empires in Andean South American
What did the rulers of empires create to organize their subjects?
New techniques of imperical admin based on success of earlier political forms:
Two important elements of imperial administrations are:
- Centralized governmetnts
- Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies
What regions hosted the most famous administrative institutions?
- South Asia
Name 4 ways in which imperial governments projected military power over large areas.
- Developing supply lines
- Building fortification, defensive walls and roads
- Drawing new groups of military officers adn soldiers from the local populations of conquered people
What function did cities play in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas?
Centers of trade , public performances of religious rituals, political admins for states and empires
Name 2 important early imperial cities.
What did the social structures of early empires display? What groups were typically included?
Displayed hierarchies including cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites or caste groupsl
How did imperial societies maintain food production?
They relied on peasent communities and slavery
An important reason to produce surplus in imperial societies was:
Rewards for the loyal and in case of famines
___________ continued to shape gender and family relations in imperial societies.
What specific empires created difficulties they could not manage?
Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan and Gupta
What types of difficulties did Empires create that often led to their collapse/decline/transformation?
- Environmental damage (deforestation, soil erosion)
- Social and economic difficulties (concentration of wealth on elites)
- External problems (invasion)
How did empire create environmental issues and what did these issues lead to?
Deforestation and soil erosion
What sorts of external problems did empires face?
- 1. Romans and eastern neighbors
- 2. Gupta and white Huns
What are 2 important examples of empires’ external problem?
- Rome's eastern neighbors
- Gupta and the white huns
What are the dates and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange”?
Organization and Reorganization of Human societies- 600BCE-600Ce
What factors shaped the features of early trade routes in the eastern hemisphere?
- Trade goods
- Ethnicity of people involved
What are the 4 most significant trade routes of the period between 600BCE and 600CE?
- Eurasian Silk Roads
- Trans-Saharan caravan routes
- Indian Ocean sea lines
- Mediterranean Sea lanes
What new technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange between 600BCE and 600CE?
- Animal domestication tools: Yokes, saddles, stirrups, (Horses, oxen, llamas, camels)
- Maritime Tech: Monsoon wind info, lateen sail, dow ships
What factors stimulated early exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia?
- Advanced knowledge of monsoon winds
- Lateen sails and dow ships
What are the various forms of exchanges that took place between 600BCE and 600CE?
- Religious/cultural beliefs
- Food crops
- Domesticated animals
What crops spread from South Asia to the Middle East?
Rice and cotten
What changes did the spread of crops encourage?
Farming and irrigation techniques
What religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread?