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What is a nutrient?
A dietary essential
What is the foundation of equine nutrition?
Grass & forages
What type of digestion does equine have and where does it take place?
Hind-gut fermentation in the cecum & lg intestine
What are various forms of nutritional needs?
Maintenance, growth, reproduction, production
What are the 4 essential nutrients?
- Energy (lipids & carbohydrates)
What is the first component of the equine diet? How should it be provided? And how much is needed in a day?
- Ad lib in liquid form
- 1 gal water/1000# body weight
Horses lose large amounts of what minerals in their sweat? What minerals are lost in small amounts?
- Na+ & Cl- in lg amounts
- Ca+ & K+ in sm amounts
Why should a horse never be allowed to drink large amounts of water after exercise?
Large amounts of cold water will shock the bacteria in the GI tract & cause endotoxemia, which leads to diarrhea & laminitis
What type of horses require an increase in energy requirements?
Growth, lactation, gestation, performance
What are the primary sources of energy in the equine diet?
Carbs & lipids
Give an example of a simple sugar and a complex carb
- Starch, cellulose, hemicellulose
Cellulose & hemicellulose are major compenents of what?
Plant cell walls & vegetable fibers
What is readily digestable and stored in plant seeds?
Lipids are ____ & ____.
Fats & oils
What are the two types of fats and what form do they take at room temperature?
- Saturated fat - solid
- Unsaturated fat - liquid
What is an integral part of all body cells?
Protein is the main constituent of what?
Connective tissue & arteries & veins
What is the composition of bone?
Cartilagenous protein matrix which is mineralized w/ Ca & P
Of the 20 amino acids that make up animal protein, how many are formed in the tissues?
What is an essential amino acid? A nonessential amino acid?
Essential amino acids are retrieved through the diet, while nonessential amino acids are synthesized by the tissues
What element do amino acids always contain?
What is crude protein and what does it measure?
- Nitrogen content x 6.25
- Measures the protein content in feed
What are the two types of minerals required in the diet?
- Macrominerals (Macroelements)
- Microminerals (Microelements, Trace elements)
Give some examples of essential macrominerals in the diet
Give some examples of essential trace elements in the diet
Vitamins are essential in what?
Maintaining normal metabolism
What will happen if a diet is deficient in vitamins?
A deficiency syndrome will develop
Can vitamins be synthesized by the body?
What are the two groups of vitamins?
List some fat soluble vitamins
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin K
List some water soluble vitamins?
- Thiamin (B1)
- Riboflavin (B2)
- Pyridoxine (B6)
- Cyanocobalamin (B12)
- Pantothenic acid
- Nicotinic acid (Niacin)
- Folic acid (folacin)
- Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
What is the composition of the typical horse diet?
- Vitamin & mineral supplements
What is a concentrate and what does it supplement?
Grains & pellets supplement energy & protein