Final From Hell

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Anonymous
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17858
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Final From Hell
Updated:
2010-05-05 01:17:36
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AP II final
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i hate this class
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  1. Plasma
    • a) liquid portion of blood
    • b) H2O mostly about 91%
    • c) Plasma Proteins 9%


  2. Plasma Prteins
    • a) Albumin
    • b)Globulins
    • c)Fibrinogen
  3. Albumin
    • a) 58% of plasma proteins, most
    • b) regulates movement of H2O between the tissue spaces in blood vessels by contributing to the Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure(PCOP)
  4. Globulins
    • a) 38% of plasma proteins
    • b) 2 functions= some are antibodies
    • -protective proteins formed in response to antigens
    • -some are transport molecules and bind to other substances
  5. Fibrinogen
    • a) 24% of plasma proteins
    • b) contribute to the formation of blood cells
  6. Formed elements
    Red blood cells
  7. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
    • a) structure
    • b) function
    • c)Hemoglobin
    • d)Life history of RBC
    • e) breakdown of Hemoglobin from lysed RBC
  8. Struture of RBC
    • 1) Bioconcave discs with edges thicker than middle
    • -increses surface area(can do more with gases without gettin bigger)
    • - increases flexibility- allows to get through tight areas ( more efficient)
    • 2)At maturity RBC's have no nucleus or cellular organelles
    • 3) Main intracellular component is protein called Hemoglobin(Hb)
    • = lipids, ATP, Carbonic anhydrase
  9. Function of RBC's
    • transport O2 and CO2
    • - O2 from lungs to tissues
    • -CO2 from tissues to lungs
  10. Hemoglobin in RBC's
    • -protein made up of four polypeptide chains and four heme grps
    • - 4 polypeptide chains: 2 alpha and 2 beta subchains
    • -4 Heme grps: w/ in each grp is an Fe atom and the rest is pigment
    • -O2 binds to Fe portion of Heme ( Hb O2 = oxyhemoglobin )
    • -CO2 binds to globin portion (Hb CO2 = carboxyhemoglobin)
  11. Life history of RBC's
    • 1) RBC production is called erythropoiesis (stimulated by low plasma O2 levels)
    • 2)Erythropoiesis is regulated by the hormone erythropotein ( made in the kidneys)
    • 3) immature RBC's are called reticulocytes
    • 4) females = 4.3-5.2mil/mm cubed ; males = 5.1-5.8 mil/mm cubed
    • 5) lifespan of RBC in females= 110 days; males= 120 days
  12. Breakdown of Hemoglobin from lysed RBC
    • 1) remenants get trapped in two organs ( liver and spleen/rbc graveyard)
    • a) macrophages enzymatically seperate Heme from globin
    • - globin is broken down into amino acids ( then amino acids are used for protein synthesis)
    • - heme ( Fe portion is transported to bone marro and used to make more Hb)
    • ( pigment is converted to bilirubin and becomes part of bile secreted by the liver)
  13. Hemostasis
    • 3 steps
    • - vascular spasm
    • - platelet plug formation (has its own three steps)
    • - Coagulation
    • Fibronolysis occurs after 3 steps
  14. Vascular Spasm in Hemostasis
    • 1) Immediate but temporary closure of damage blood vessel
    • - due to reflexive retraction of smooth muscle within vessel wall
    • 2) Triggered by two different things
    • - endothelin from damages blood vessel endothelial cells
    • - nervous system due to stimulation of local pain receptors(nociceptors)
  15. Platelet Plug Formation of Hemostasis
    • 1) an accumulation of platelets at injury cite
    • 2) occurs in a series of steps
    • a) Platelet adhesion
    • b) Platelet release reaction
    • c) Platelet aggragation
  16. Platelet adhesion in PPF
    • 1) injured endothelial cells produce a protein called Von WillenBrand Factor
    • - allows platelets to bind to collagen that has been exposed due to injury
  17. Platelet release reaction of PPF
    • 1) Platelets bound to collagen and become activated , which causes platelets to release chemicals from their cytoplasmic granules
    • a) ADP
    • -Thromboxane A2 are released from granules ( recruits more platelets to injury cites)
  18. Platelet aggragation of PPF
    Plasma protein fibrinogen facilitates binding of platelets together PGI1 released from damaged endothelial cells (limits the aggragation to only damaged area)
  19. Coagulation of Hemostasis
    • - Prothrombin turns into Thrombin (by prothrombin activator from damaged endothelial cells) (prothrombin is made by liver and is not active)
    • - Fibrinogen turns into Fibrin ( by Thrombin) (Fibrinogen is mage by the liver and Fibrin is what holds the clot together)
  20. Fibronolysis (clot resolution) of Hemostasis
    -cells around clot release a protein called Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA)

    plasminogen -----> Plasmin (activated by TPA) (plasminogen is made by liver and Plasmin causes hydrolysis of fibrin holding clot together)
  21. Damaged Endothelial Cells Release 5 Things
    • - Edothelin
    • - Von WillenBrand Factor
    • - PGI2
    • - Prothrombin activator
    • - Tissue Plasminogen Activator
  22. Pericardial Sack
    • double layered closed sack surrounding the heart
    • a) fibrous pericardium
    • - tough fibrous CT
    • - prevents fro moverdistension of heart, anchors w/ in the mediastium
    • b) Serous pericardium ( simple squamous epithelium)
    • - 2 layers ( Parietal pericardium- thoracic cavity / Visceral pericardium- heart itself surrounds it)
  23. Heart Chambers
    • a) 2 atria and 2 ventricles
    • b) inter atria septum ( divides atria into left and right)
    • c) interventricular septum (divides ventricles into left and right)
  24. Atria
    Auricles- structures on superior surface

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