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- something happening in the environment prevents you from hearing what the person is saying
- ex: traffic noises
if a person is deaf
- if someone is using different vocab than what you're used to.
- ex: jargon
someone uses a different order of words and you can't understand them
when different customs cause you to misunderstand each other
if someone is under psychological distress, they may not be able to get their point across.
Linear Model of Communication
- The speaker gives his message and the receiver decodes it.
- No room for feedback.
- ex: voicemails, television, public speeches.
Interactional Model of Communication
Like linear, but it enables the receiver to give feedback.
Transactional Model of Communication
both the sender and the receiver may simultaneously process messages.
refers to a society consisting of varied cultural groups, like the US
when we consider the views and standards of our own culture more important than any other
a system of arbitrary signals, such as sounds, gestures, or symbols, used by a nation, people, or distinct community to communicate thoughts and feelings.
the Cybernetic Process
when the cortex stores, computes, and processes incoming signals, and then puts forth the necessary information
Learning Symbols: Language-Explosion Theory
- the theory states that you learn the most from the person who was closest to you when you were growing up.
- most often is the mother.
Learning Symbols: Significant-Other Theory
- as we are growing up, we start selecting specific people or groups whose language, ideals, and beliefs we allow to influence us.
- these are the significant others in our lives. can be friends, teachers, family members, etc.
the study of the sounds, structure, and rules of the human language.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (linguistic relativity hypothesis)
argues that a person’s understanding of the world and how the person behaves in it are based on the language a person speaks
- words that have direct, explicit meanings.
- ex: a dog, ketchup
- words that have a suggested meaning.
- like pretty, or difficult.
uses emotional, connotative words during speaking
- only used during social sitations.
- ex: Hello, how are you?
used to convey information
- used to change perceptions, beliefs, behaviors.
- speakers may use emotionally-charged pictures
used to name persons or things specifically.
caused by ambiguity, vagueness, inferences, or message adjustment.
a form of vagueness that is used to distort reality, make the bad seem good.
low-prestige dialects, like southern twangs.
- uttered sounds words, or phrases that have no meaning or do not help the listener gain a clear understand of the message.
- ex: um, like
most common dialect used by African Americans.