COMM Ch 1 and 2

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COMM Ch 1 and 2
2012-10-20 14:47:20

Chapters 1 and 2
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  1. Environmental Noise
    • something happening in the environment prevents you from hearing what the person is saying 
    • ex: traffic noises
  2. Physiological-Impairment Noise
    if a person is deaf
  3. Semantic Noise
    • if someone is using different vocab than what you're used to. 
    • ex: jargon
  4. Syntactical Noise
    someone uses a different order of words and you can't understand them
  5. Cultural Noise
    when different customs cause you to misunderstand each other
  6. Psychological Noise
    if someone is under psychological distress, they may not be able to get their point across.
  7. Linear Model of Communication
    • The speaker gives his message and the receiver decodes it. 
    • No room for feedback.
    • ex: voicemails, television, public speeches.
  8. Interactional Model of Communication
    Like linear, but it enables the receiver to give feedback. 
  9. Transactional Model of Communication
    both the sender and the receiver may simultaneously process messages. 
  10. Multiculturalism
    refers to a society consisting of varied cultural groups, like the US
  11. Ethnocentrism
    when we consider the views and standards of our own culture more important than any other
  12. Define Language
    a system of arbitrary signals, such as sounds, gestures, or symbols, used by a nation, people, or distinct community to communicate thoughts and feelings.
  13. the Cybernetic Process
    when the cortex stores, computes, and processes incoming signals, and then puts forth the necessary information
  14. Learning Symbols: Language-Explosion Theory
    • the theory states that you learn the most from the person who was closest to you when you were growing up. 
    • most often is the mother.
  15. Learning Symbols: Significant-Other Theory
    • as we are growing up, we start selecting specific people or groups whose language, ideals, and beliefs we allow to influence us. 
    • these are the significant others in our lives. can be friends, teachers, family members, etc.
  16. Linguistics
    the study of the sounds, structure, and rules of the human language.
  17. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (linguistic relativity hypothesis)
    argues that a person’s understanding of the world and how the person behaves in it are based on the language a person speaks
  18. Denotative Meanings
    • words that have direct, explicit meanings.
    • ex: a dog, ketchup
  19. Connotative Meanings
    • words that have a suggested meaning.
    • like pretty, or difficult.
  20. Emotive Language
    uses emotional, connotative words during speaking
  21. Phatic Language
    • only used during social sitations. 
    • ex: Hello, how are you?
  22. Cognitive Language
    used to convey information
  23. Rhetorical Language
    • used to change perceptions, beliefs, behaviors.
    • speakers may use emotionally-charged pictures
  24. Identifying Language
    used to name persons or things specifically.
  25. Language Distortion
    caused by ambiguity, vagueness, inferences, or message adjustment.
  26. Doublespeak
    a form of vagueness that is used to distort reality, make the bad seem good. 
  27. Standard Dialects
    high-prestige dialects
  28. Non-standard Dialects
    low-prestige dialects, like southern twangs.
  29. Inarticulates
    • uttered sounds words, or phrases that have no meaning or do not help the listener gain a clear understand of the message.
    • ex: um, like 
  30. Ebonics
    most common dialect used by African Americans.