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A cillium is a
hair-like extension on the cell surface.
Usually on luminal (inside) surface of tube-like structures.
Moves material on top of the cell.
A flagella is a
whip-like extension on the cell surface.
Usually only one per cell.
In humans, only cell with a flagellum is the sperm cell.
A flagellum moves the cell through material.
Cilia and flagella are organelles used by cells to
move substances past the cell, or to move the cell around.
Singular: cilium; plural: cilia
Singualr: flagellum; plural: flagella
At the base, how many triplets of microtubules?
Nine triplets of microtubules.
How many doublets of microtubules are found in the body?
Nine doublets of microtubules
The most notable example of cilia in the human body is in the lower respiratory tract, where they drive something called
What does the mucociliary escalator continually bring?
mucus, dead invaders and inhaled crud up from the bottom of the lungs to the throat, where it is swallowed.
The only cell in the human body that has a flagellum is
the single flagellum found on the sperm cell.
What type of movement does cilium make?
a rowing motion.
Power Stroke- blade of oar is pushing water; as the cilium presents its full length and maximum resistance to the overlying material.
Return Stroke- oar turned so that it glids back to start; as the cilium folds to present as little resistance as possibel to the overlying material.
What type of movement does flagellum use?
wave-like, whipping motion; appropriate for swimming
Ribosomes are the site of
What is the job of ribosomes?
to make proteins
Ribosomes are made of two subunits. What are they and what are they called?
What does "s" refer to?
Large subunit- called 60S
Small subunit- called 40S
"s" refers to how fast they fall down to the bottom of a centrifuge tube
Free ribosomes synthesize proteins in
Ribosomes are also found as part of the organelle known as
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER).
The RER is a collection of membrane bags with ribosomes arranged all along the outside.
Ribosomes use another type of RNA called
messenger RNA (mRNA)- as the instruction sheet
transfer RNA (tRNA)- as a carrier for the raw materials of proteins (amino acids).
At the ribosomes, amino acids are joined together by
peptide bonds to form a protein chain.
What are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
The ribosomes of the RER are part of a system of protein synthesis: the proteins are made by
ribosomes of the RER, and then are released into the RER sacs and the Golgi complex for further processing.
Ribosomes lie on the
surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Genetic code material is copied in the nucleus, then
taken out to the RER to be read.
The SER is actually several different organelles with
similar appearance, so that they cannot be distinguished in electron micrographs of the cell.
Functions of the SER include:
Synthesis- synthesis of lipids and steroids.
Storage- storage of Ca++
- Digestion-Destruction of toxins
- Recycling of cell membrane
- Metabolism of carbohydrates
- Metabolism of steroids
How does the Golgi complex process materials destined for export?
receives unprocessed proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and modifies them into their final form. Then, the Golgi packages the proteins and "tags" them for export to their final destination.
The Golgi is curved, and its functions are not distributed
What does the Entry face (cis face) receive?
receives transported material from the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
What does the Exit face (trans face) give rise too?
Gives rise to secretory vesicles.
What are the first 3 steps in processing protein?
1. Proteins are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
2. Transport vesicles carry "raw", unprocessed proteins to the Golgi.
3. Transport vesicles fuse with the entry (cis) face of the Golgi.
What are the last 3 steps in processing protein?
4. As proteins are processed, they are moved from one Golgi stack to the next by transfer vesicles. In the Golgi stacks, the unused part of proteins are removed by one set of enzymes and, if a glycoprotein is being produced, the branched sugar groups are added here.
5. The last transfer vesicle fuses with the exit (trans) face of the Golgi.
6. The processed, completed protein is packaged into a vesicle and the vesicle is shed from the exit face of the Golgi.
After the protein is packaged into a vesicle, it may end up in one of three places.
1. If a secretory protein, it is packaged into a vesicle and released from the cell by exocytosis.
2. If a membrane protein, it is packaged into a membrane vesicle which fuses with the cell membrane. The proteins or glycoproteins then become part of the cell surface.
3. If the protein is defective or not needed, then it is packaged into a vesicle which is directed to the lysosome for beakdown and recycling.