ANSC 100

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ANSC 100
2012-10-20 20:11:17
Non infectious disease

non-infectious disease
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  1. What is health?
    • practically: growth, reproduction, behaviour
    • whats normal for species and type of animal
  2. Define disease
    any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ or system
  3. Domestic animals must do more than just survive they must:
    • grow rapildy (broilers)
    • reproduce efficiently (hogs)
    • produce more milk than young need (dairy- because we bred them to do that)
    • grow harder than required in natural environment (horses)
  4. What are causes of diseases in non infectious animals?
    caused by agents other than living organisms
  5. *****causes of disease what does DAMNITV stand for?
    • D: developmental, degenerative (ie arthritis)
    • A: anomally; allergic, autouimmune
    • M: metabolic
    • N: Nutritional, neoplastic (cancer), neurological
    • I: Inflammatory, immune, iatrogenic (vet caused it), idiopathic (dont know what causes disease), infectious
    • T: traumatic, toxic
    • V: vascular (incl coaglualtion) ie heart an blood vessel diseases
  6. What are some physical and chemical non-infectious disease factors?
    • Toxiological problems:
    • fungal toxins (mycotoxicosis in peanuts)
    • plant poisoning
    • nutrient toxicoses (too much water and fat soluble things if to high concentration: body gets toxicity)
    • heavy metals (lead, arsinic, soils)
    • gases
    • etc...
  7. What are some circulatory, digestive and reproductive non infectious disease facors?
    • Circulatory
    • various etiologies (heart, vessels etc)
    • may relate to other disease  processes
    • Digestive diseases: nutritional, metabolic, traumatic (lack or too much of)
    • Reproductive diseases
    • abortion (from toxins, developmental issues, hormonal)
    • dystocia (difficult birth)
    • failures of lactation
    • repeat breeders (M or F either cant get pregnant or get other one prego)
  8. Describe Hardware disease
    • aka traumatic reticuloperitonitis
    • not really an infectious disease but involves infection
    • A traumatic injury to the reticulum
    • may occur as a herd outbreak
    • C/S:
    • -digestive upset
    • -fever
    • -production drop
    • -loss of body condition
    • -+/- heart disease symptoms
  9. Non indwctious diseases may have several presentations, or underlying causes the same such as:
    • allergic or inflammatory diseases
    • urinary diseases
    • ocular diseases
    • neurologic
    • musculoskeletal
    • dermatologic
    • neoplastic (cancer)
  10. Examples of life stages or certain groups that non-infectious diseases are primarly associated with
    • developmental
    • degenerative
    • metabolic
    • neoplasia (cancers)
    • nutritional
  11. What are the factors in production diseases?
    • referred traditionally to those dieases induced by management practivies ie metabolic disease and nutritional problems
    • recently they have expanded to include other traits such as infertility, and diseases such as mastitis and lameness that might involve infectious agents but are exacerbated (made worse)  by nutritional or managment practies  (wouldnt normally see until you push for such high production)
    • relates to expected productivity of animal
  12. The maintenance of "health" in a high production animal includes:
    • fertitlity:
    • -return to estrus after calving and farrowing
    • -dystocia rate (how easily give birth)
    • -bull fertility
    • dietary management:
    • -nutritional and metabolic disorders
    • multifactorial diseases:
    • -relationship and participation in infectious diseases (not just a single cause)
  13. What are some non-infectious diseases in Dairy Cattle
    • energy metabolism associated disease
    • -fat cow syndrome
    • -ketosis
    • -retained placenta
    • -infertility
    • diseases associated with low fiber/acidosis
    • -bloat, laminits. indigestion/off feed, liver abscesses, displaced abomasum
    • Ca/P metabolism diseases/ complications
    • -hypocalcemia (milk fever)
    • Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis and pericaditis)
  14. Describe a "ketosis "
    • Problems: Hypothermia, tachycardia (elevated heart rate), GIT depression/ stasis, RP, muscular weakness/ tremors
    • symptoms: fat cow, depressed, seems "hyperesthetic"
    • Urine Test to show ketones (not supposed to be there! something is going wrong in the metabolism in crebs cycle)
    • WHAT: its a - E balance problem, the cow lacks E and doesnt have enough glucose so she starts to metabolize fat- outcome is ketone production
    • Treatment: IV glucose, glucocorticoids- improve glucose distribution and kinetics
    • *Prevention: maximize E (feed) intake, balanced ration, constant availability, high quality feed
  15. How to prevent parturient paresis (milk fever)
    • Dietary Ca restriction at first part of pregnancy and then in last part increase CA so that she is more efficient at metabolizing it quickly (keyed uo to respond)
    • acidificiation through diet
    • prophylactic Ca immediatyl before and after calving
  16. characteristics of production diseases?
    • in dairy cows most periparturient diseases and traits are followed by lower production, impaired fertility, and increased culling
    • the effects are independent of other diseases, at times are long lasting
    • production diseases are often multifactorial and often seceral may appear at the same stage in production (ie ketosis and milk fever)
    • -independant relationshops among them must be established, so that common cause effects, direct and indirect causal associations, and incidental relationships can be differentiated
    • control of production diseases often involves various disciplines and therfore calls for "multivariate approac" (respond and prevent) --> which has led to the adapatation of integrated programs for herd health --> which are characterized by the adaptation of multidisciplinary, multi factorial, and a population approach to clinical entities
  17. *Describe the developmental orthopedic diseases in horses
    • includes any disturbance in changing the catilaginous precursors of the skeleton fo functional bone young growing horses
    • 6 types
    • bone growth happend in metaphysis (growth plate)
    • Osteochondrosis dessicans: A flap develps from the articular cartilage due to the failure of cartilage to be properly converted into bone
    • epiphysitis and physitis
    • an inflammation at the growth plate occuring when the bone is weak  (hormonal, nutrition, metabolism)
    • Others: subchondral bone cysts, wobbler syndrome, acquired angular limb deformities, flexural deformities such as contracted tendons
  18. *Developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs:
    • ie hip dysplasia: femur joint: scar tissue
    • large breed dogs (patients 5 to 10 monthts of age and older patients with chronic degenerative joint disease)
    • risk factors include breed (genetic), rapid growth and nutrient excesses
    • Treatments: surgical or medical management
    • medical: rest, anti-inflammatories, chondroprotectants, weight loss
    • surgical: femoral head ostecotomy, hip replacement, triple pelvic osteotomy
  19. Describe Bovine Ocular squamous cell carcinoma (neoplasia)**
    • cancer eye
    • high hertibaility
    • white faced breeds ie hereford
    • over 5 yrs of age
    • prolonged exposure to UV light
    • cause of culling, condemnation at slaughter
    • treatment: surgery, cyrosurgery (freeze with liquid N2), hyperthermia (burn off)
    • treatment is temporary measure- high rate of recurrence
    • (-cull before welfare issue, tumor on eyelid, insectors look for lesions like this)