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What is a hocket?
Hocket is creates interlocking sonic wave when short individual pitches of a melody are played separately and successively. The activity requires group's participation
What is a motet?
from the Renaissance comprises of a sacred song form with Latin lyrics
Is motet a form of homophony or imitation in polyphonic works?
a motet is an interplay of homophony and imitation in polyphonic works
What is a madrigal?
A madrigal is a SECULAR song sung by amateur musicians in the Renaissance. The emotional and overdramatic lyrics allow for "word painting"
What are two examples of interplay of homophony and imitation in polyphonic works?
madrigal and motet
What time period was the middle ages?
What time period was the Renaissance?
Which period happened during the 600-850?
the Gregorian Chant
When did the Baroque Era occur?
Name the periods in order from past to present.
Middle Ages, Gregorian Chant, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Classical, Romantic, Post-Romantic/Impressionist, 20th c
When was the Rococo Period?
When was the Classical Period?
When was the Romantic Period?
When was the Impressionist Era?
Texture is the weaving of musical fabric such as the thinness or thickness of sound
Timbre is how the texture is colored. It is usually described as the sharpness, clear, or vibrant sound.
What is monophony?
Monophony is a solo or a soli singing the same melody
What is heterophony?
variations of the same song being sung at the same time which creates "thick unison"
music possessing two individual separate lines or parts
What is biophony?
in the diaphony category and is a single instrument that can produce two different pitches simultaneously
Give two examples of diaphony
- a melody with a drone
- a duet
What is polyphony?
Many voices that have equal part importances often refer to as counterpoint.
What are the three types of counterpoint?
parallel motion, contrary motion, and oblique
Which category of oblique, parallel, or contrary motions does diaphonic falls into?
What is countrapuntal polyphony?
two equally important melodies played against each other in a single song.
Homophony occurs in a situation where one melody line DOMINATES the other voice. It is often a solo being accompanied by other voices
What is homorhythm?
when accompanying voices move together as a unit
What are three countrapuntal devices?
Fugue, canon, imitation
In what category is countrapuntal polyphony under?
Name three types of responsorial formats
Call and Response, imitation, and antiphony
What is the difference between antiphony and call and response?
- Antiphony- the two singing groups are the same size
- call and response- the two singing groups are different sizes
What is responsorial formats and texture category is it under?
creates a sense of musical interplay between various lines and is in polyphony category
What is imitation?
Imitation occurs when parts echo each other
What is sequential imitation?
When the same melodic phrase or motive is echoed by other voices in succession but in different pitches
What is the Bakan five classification of music?
- 1. physical sound qualities
- 2. organized sounds
- 3. music is humanly organized sound
- 4. music is created with human intention
- 5. "music" is often associated with Western music
What is soundscape?
sounds and noises that create music in a specific environment
Where did the classical period received their inspiration?
Greece; standard and authoritative styles
Match the following
Culture physical group institution
- culture- ideology
- society- physical group institution
Music must be understood as...
sound, concept, and behavior
What are the two types and quality notation?
Prescriptive and descriptive notation
explain prescriptive notation
gives instruction on how to play a specific sound
describes how the music should sound like
List five facts about the Middle Ages
- 1. music was very church-oriented
- 2. Church as patron
- 3. Rise of Christianity
- 4. Before the Renaissance
Who was the Gregory Chant named after?
Pope Gregory the Great
List seven qualities of Gregorian Chant
- 1. Acappella
- 2. Monophonic/ responsorial format
- 3. Nonmetric but rhythm follows text
- 4. Stepwise melody
- 5. Latin
- 6. Syllabic, neumatic, melismatic
- 7. Uses Church modes from ancient Greece
What are the two mass structure?
Proper and Ordinary
What is the function of Gregorian Chant?
to set the public worship-especially the Mass- of the Roman Christian church
How was Gregorian Chant notated?
- 1. Neumes
- 2. four-lines staff and square heads
- 3. Mostly pass orally but notation also scribed by monks
Who was part of the Second Viennese School of Composition?
Weber, Shoenberg, Berg
Who was Anton Webern?
- 1. Student of Schoenberg
- 2. Austrian composer
What was the Second Viennese School of Composition?
- 1. by Schoenberg
- 2. Atonality
- 3. Serialism
- 4. twelve-tone compositional method
Describe characteristics of Webern's Five Pieces for Orchestra
- 1. Pointillism
- 2. Lyricism
- 3. Atonal and brief/disjuncted musical motives
- 4. Klangfarbenmelodie previously used by Schoenberg
- 1. created by Schoenberg
- 2. individual tones or sections of a melody being played by different instruments
What piece did John William compose?
What song does Simple Gifts identical to?
Copland's Applachian Spring
What ideology inspired simple gifts?
Who was Hildegard von Bingen?
- 1. a female nun composer who had visions
- 2. Wrote the Scivias-collections of written visions
- 3. Composed works relating to religion
List some social characteristics of Renaissance
- 1. Technology
- 2. rich middle class as patrons of arts
- 3. Secular, balance, and proportions
Renaissance Music: List three characteristics
- 1. Acappella
- 2. Madrigals, Motet, and Mass
- 3. Cantus Firmus, chromatic development
- 4. Text painting
- 1. Italy, then England
- 2. Secular, mainly for fun
- 3. Poetic text painting
- 4. Many voice parts: polyphonic
- 1. Many voice parts: polyphonic
- 2. Middle Ages-secular
- 3. Renaissance- sacred
- 4. performed by professionals
Who wrote Dido's Lament?
Who was Henry Purcell
- 1. Organist
- 2. known for dramatic and over emotional works
- 3. English Composer
- 4. BAROQUE ERA
- 5. Works for the royal courts
What era was Dido's Lament?
- 1. First Viennese School
- 2. keyboardist
- 3. Classical and Romantic Era
- 4. Self-employed
- 5. TRANSITIONAL FIGURE
repetitive rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic pattern
Give a song example of ostinato
What is ground bass? Is it a part of ostinato?
Yes. Ground bass is a repeating bass line
What is an aria?
a vocal solo (usually emotional) from the protagonist's point-of-view
What is a recitative?
a vocal INFORMATIVE solo commenting about the musical story that contains little musicality
What is theme and variations?
using a selected theme, the composer alters the theme in successive variations
What is motive/motif?
a short melodic or rhythmic pattern of a basic phrase
what is a phrase?
a musical sentence that ends in a cadence
What does a phrase contains?
antecedent and consequent
What is a section?
a grouping of musical phrases
what is a movement?
Division of a multi-large composition
Describe what AA, AA', and AB means and their classification names
- AA- repetition
- AA'- variations
- AB- contrast
What is free meter?
an absence of pulse
what is meter?
a grouping of recognizable beats
pointillism or separated notes played to create an overall theme
What is neumatic?
small group of notes to a syllable
What is melismatic?
more groups of notes to a syllable
Explain strophic form
a song tune that is repeated while the text changes
What is ordinary mass?
- 1. always constant
- Ash-Agnus Des
what is proper mass?
- changes according to season
- Open (for)- offertory
What technique does the Hiroshima uses?