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A symptom of traumatic reticuloperitonitis commonly observed is
poor appetite & weight loss
The risk for one person to get a disease has remained the same but the risk of many has increased because greater populations
In the 80's and 90's WHO saw the emerfene of 29 communicable and re emerging diseases give some examples
TB, plague, yellow fever, cholera, syphillus
A disease shared between species which can infect humans (also humans can infect animals)
What are some of the dynamics of zoonosis
flow and ebb (ie west nile), vector populations (ie mosquitos), climate changes, habitat alteration (fires), muatation and alterations (pathogens)
____% of all 1415 known infectious pathogens are zoonoses
___% of 175 notable "emerged" human infections are zoonotic
Define Emerging disease
- disease or infection whose incidence has increased or is expected to increase in a defined time period and location
- also consider circulation of potentially infectious/ disease agents
- a condition/agent may be emerging for a population, subpopulation, single host, or group of hosts
- an agent endemically (always there in low levels) present in one species and may emerge in other species
- a disease that has been successfully controlled in a population may reemerge
How do you consider emerging diseases in a qualitative way?
- Host: who/what is the target population
- Agent: what is the agent and how do we recognize it?
- Interaction: what are the mechanisms of infection, transmission and what is the mode of propagation?
How do you consider emerging diseases in a quantitative way?
- Incidence: magnitude of increase?
- Time: temporal pattern of increase, duration of outbreak?
- Space: loaction, area affected
Explain the development of modern vet medicine
- paralleled and overlapped with human medicine in early years
- many animal health researchers particiapted in or pioneered the discoveries of "microbes", vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics etc
- ie people died of rabbies so the antibiotics for hunans were tested on animals and dveloped
- The history of vet med has involved the respinse to many disease that have emerged to afflict livestock, and often humans who may not even have a direct contact
What did Rudolf Virchow do?
- not a vet, but founder of the medical disciplines of cellualr pathology, comparattive pathology (comparisons of diseases common to humans and animals) and anthroplogy
- "there should be no dividing line between human and animal medicine
- mentor of william osler
- classified diseases as a profession
What did *Sir William Osler do?
- Coined the term "one medicine" to represent the common approach and intersection of human and aninmal diseases and their diagnosis
- Human and animal pathology (what organ looks like when infected) was first taught by osler at the montreal vet college
- canadian born in ontario
- studied hog cholera at montreal vet college, and determined and named the parasite causing verminous bronchitis in dogs, taught the first vet pathology cours
- foundeing physiciam in chief of the john hopkins hospital in baltimore
The development of modern vet medicine was founded on the study of what two things?
- study and eradication of zoonoses
- animal disease
Describe Bovine tuberculosis
- 1922 4% of US cattle had it
- cow to humans in milk, forms abses in lungs (in cows) and bones in humans, "hunch backs"
- elk and bison are affected by TB
- testing, slaughter and farmer compensation programs in NA wlong with pasteurization allowed evential elimination of BTB
- caused alot of CN deaths due to consumption of unpasteurized milk or infected meat
- all cattle where tested for TB and brucellosis until the 1960s
- these public health programs required many highly trained vets and the development of vet infrastructure (thats why saskatoon built)
What is brucellosis
bacteria shed in milk and meat causes undulant high fever and makes them infertile
Some "famous" zoonoses still around
- Bubonic plague- 4th century "black death"
- Influenza, panglobal 20 to 40 million
- bovine tuberculosis
- brucellosis (undulant fever)
- yellow fever
Describe "black death"
- bubonic plague
- numerous cases annually all over world
- contact with squirrels, prairie dogs, cats
- 17 cases in oregon
are vector borne diseases and canine parvo zoonotic?
What are some long term zoonotic diseases
- hantavirus: related to climate conditions of el nino: lots of rain: deer and mice population increase, spread in urine and feces of deer mice get from dust of mouse poop in aerseol)
- E.coli 0157-H7
- Lyme disease
- giardia (bever fever)
- various tapeworms etc
New diseases that have emerged in animals
- west nile virus- birds and horses
- canine parvo- domestic dogs and wolves
- canine distemper virus crossed into wild felines, and wiped out 1/3 of the lion population in serengeti and masaai mara paks (crossed species barrier- when conditions are right diseases susceptible will jump species)
- postweaning multisystemic wasting in swine
- chytrid disease and iridovirus of amphibians
- exotic newcaste disease- poultry,cormorants (in slave lake carry it )
Give some examples of zoonotic diseases in Canada
- Bacteria: salmonella, campylobacter, e.coli, vector borne (q fever and lyme disease)
- hemobartonella (cat scratch fever)
- various parastic worms: protozoa: giardia, cryptosporidium (common in dairy), toxoplasmosis
- viruses; west nile and other encephalitis viruses
Describe avian influenza
- the main way virus is spread between poultry is by movement of birds and products
- establishing good biosecurity measures on poultry farms is an important defense
- the poultry industry is a huge integrated complex in asia
- biosecurity is poor in many cases
- migratory waterfowl may move disease between populations large distances apart (waterfowl are resevoirs and arent affected, they carry and shed virus which usually come from assian birds who cross migratory paths with canadian birtds in russia)
- avian influenza may have been the start to H1N1 virus
What are some of the factors unique to asian countries?
- Live poultry markets: resevoir and amplifier, chickens and ducks
- backyard flocks
- migrant ducks-contact with domestic ducks, poultry and pigs
- fighting cocks: highly prized; often transported long distances- spread diseases to humans
- weak vet infrastructure
- facing hp-AI outbreak the first time
Ecohealth or one health describes what?
describe and explore the relationships and inextricable (impossible to disintangle) links between humans, animals and their biophysical, social, and economic environments that are reflected in an individuals health
What are some factors responsible for disease emergence?
- ecological changes, such as those due to agricultural or economic development or anomalies in climate
- human demographic changes and behaviour
- travel and commerce
- technology and industry
- microbrial adaptation and change
- the breakdown of public health measures (wars or tsunamis. Natural disasters challenge public health ie food inspection)
Based on meta analysis of research what are the main drivers of zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin
- 1. land use changes
- 2. International travel and commerce
- 3. climate and weather
What are some of the zoonotic diseases that have decreased dramatically in the USA?
anthrax, cholera, lyme disease, malaria, measles, rabies, TB, ticks, typhoid fever, yellow fever
Describe the uncovering of the Nipah Virus in Malaysia in 1998/99
- cases of humans with viral encephalitis
- pork slaughterhouse workers in singapore also affected
- cause initially thought to be Japanese encephalitis
- Unusual patterns noticed by epidemiologists: in muslim malaysia, virtually affected were the ethnic (non muslim b/c dont eat pork) chinese, virtually all owned or worked on pig farms
- furhter investigation: disease in pigs on farms, a paramyxovirus after one of the first towns where it occures
- pigs identified as source of disease
- sudden deaths were observed in infected pigs
- humans thought to be infected by contact
- panic resulted in the sale of pigs across malaysia = worsened outbreak
- 250 human cases with 100 deaths
- no vaccine or treatment available
- reduced pig-human contact
- gov increased initial slaughter from 300 000 to 1.3 million
- military employed to conduct the slaughter
- devastated the swine industry
- singapore banned import of malausian pork
- indonesiea stepped in to supply singapore
- industry and trade may take many years to recover
- after 1999 no additiional cases
- increase biosecurity so these things do not happen
How can understanding the climate factor help predict and control disease
new technologies and a better understanding of climate can help to predict and control disease. disease occurence and distribution are directly affected by climate and climate change
What arre some conditions and outcomes associated with ENSO
- El Nino (because of changing conditions)
- Rift Valley Fever- south africa
- Malaria- Africa and South America
- Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome- USA (caried by rodents)
- Cholera- Bangladesh
- Wildfires and air pollution - Indonesia
- Loss of fisheries - Peru
What is the importance of Asia as a resevoir of emerging diseases?
- high population density
- cultural predilection to "novel" food species
- close assocation between humans, soils, vegetable food sources, water supplies, landfill sites, domestic animals and birds, wildlife etcc=....
What broader view is required for world health?
- new training of vets ("ecohealth" perspective) and other "big pic" disciplines
- integration of new disciplines (other than vets) into the animal heath care system- vets may have to relinquish some ownership
- new focus of policy and funding on building healthy systems that decrease opportunity for emergence
What is Ole Nielsens critcisation of the vet proffesion??
"It is alarming that organized vet medicine is effectively ignoring the health of a great many vertebrate species whose very existence is being threatened by enviro degradation. Increasingly, the profession is being focused largely on individual animals with enough emotional or economic value to justify application of the practices to human medicine. Essentially, this orientation is being pursued to the exclusion of other obligations of our profession"