bio aging ch 3.txt

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  1. Cross-sectional vs Longitudinal (cohort) studies
    • Cross sectional: low cost, measure Large pop sizes
    • Problems: environmental factors may affect age groups differently
    • Cohort: smaller, more expensive
    • Problems: selective mortality forces may affect measurements, and since pop size is small, can have issue
  2. Diseases and mortality rates rated from highest prevalence to lowest
    • 1. Heart disease: Weibull scale
    • 2. Cancer: Logistic scale
    • 3. Stroke: Weibull in blacks, Gompertz scale in whites
    • 4. Accidental mortality: Type II in young adult and middle age. Type I hyperbolic in older ppl
    • 5. Pulmonary disease (w/emphysema): Logistic scale, then leveling off after 85)
    • 6. Pneumonia/influenza: Hyperbolic scale
    • 7. Diabetes: Logistic scale
    • 8. Suicide: After age 65… white males - Type I. black males and white females - Type II. Black females - Type III
    • 9. Liver disease: Logistic scale
    • 10. HIV and AIDS: Type III, but due to different environmental influences
    • 11. Homicide: Type I in adolescents. Type III in young adult to middle age. Type II in elderly (possibly Type I in women)
    • 12. Nephritis/nephrosis (kidney disease): Gompertz pattern
    • 13. Septicemia (Bacteremia): Gompertz pattern
  3. Cardiovascular system aging studies pioneer
    • Robert Kohn: pioneered studies of ARTERIAL STIFFENING with age, showing Collagen cross-linkage was mechanism
    • Study shown in rats and mice
    • COllagen cross-linking due to glucose strongest hypothesis to account for INCREASE in PP as result from arterial stiffening
  4. Arterial stiffening studies show
    • Once glucose attaches to second lysine, stiffening process not reversible
    • increases with diabetics
    • this process can be slowed in food restricted animals
    • Can be slowed in humans taking vitamin B3, B1, B6 or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
  5. Pulse pressure (PP) and equation
    • PP increases with age
    • SBP - DBP = PP
    • SBP ( systolic bp )
    • DBP (diastolic bp )
  6. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) equation
    • MAP = 1/3 PP + DBP
    • MAP = 1/3 SBP + 2/3 DBP
  7. Harsh environments and increasd aging
    • Often increase aging rate
    • ie: humans who are older increase risk of skin cancer due to long exposure to UV rays
    • worker bees born in winter have longer lifespan vs. those born in the spring, partly b/c they are sheltered in hive, and have lower metabolic rates (Sohal)
  8. Harsh environments and decreased aging
    • Serve to keep predator, parasite (w/Bristlecone pine) or competitor populations low, as in
    • quaking aspen use harsh environments to advantage. The environments may kill off other species and be beneficial for aspen.
  9. Developmental changes that affect aging (pre-maturational)
    • in honeybees: queen fed jelly of minerals and nutrients…growth rate and fertility increase and survives for years vs. worker bees, who live for 1yr
    • in humans:
    • 1. sexual maturation accompanied by increase in mortality rates
    • 2. iron levels may correlate with cardiovascular disease
  10. Postmaturational changes affecting aging
    • Aging Acceleration: due to increase in exposure to TOXINS, carcinogens, excessive caloric intake, failure to intake minerals, antioxidants
    • Retardation of aging: decrease in exposure to toxins, carcinogens, etc.
  11. Short, Williams and Bowden
    showed biomarkers (physiological variables, ie serum calcium, body temp, T cells, Cl, WBC content) in monkeys correlated with antioxidants.
  12. Biomarkers and examples
    • Biomarkers will not replace longitudinal studies, but may be effective for aging interventions where initial data used to set parameters for full long. study
    • Motor activity: biomarker in nematode worm
    • in Drosophila: 5 biomarkers including geotaxis, phototaxis, fecundity, amino acid incorp and metabolic rate
    • Paramedium: % of MAXIMUM Cell division rate is good predictor of LIFE Expectancy

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bio aging ch 3.txt
2012-10-21 02:04:00
bio aging

ch 3
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