Renaissance Art (part 7)

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felara9614
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178662
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Renaissance Art (part 7)
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2012-10-21 18:48:47
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APAH
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16th century Northern Renaissance
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    • Judgement of Paris
    • Artist: Cranach
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance, 1530
    • Techniques:
    • tempera and oil on wood
    • Paris is in Northern European armor
    • Mercury is an older man
    • square face
    • naive nudes - subtlety flirtatious
    • pear-shaped physique
    • Italian focus on idealism and musculature while north has pear-shaped physiques for females
    • northern landscape setting
    • northern renaissance landscape is more detailed
    • detailed foliage
    • Paris is holding an apple
  1. five temptations depicted as foolish creates attacking the saint
    • Four Horsemen from the Apocalypse
    • Artist: Durer
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • wood cut - anything that is white has been cut away
    • fourth print out of 14 from the series of the apocalypse
    • death, famine, war, and pestilence
    • pestilence carries bow and arrow
    • war holds sword
    • famine holds scales
    • death is the skeleton
    • death actually touches ground - no one can escape it - Christ over the Catholic Church
    • death literally tramples over the Bishop
    • direct connection to Christ
    • archangel Micheal overhead
    • head of famine is foreshortened
    • figures are angular
    • Knight, Death, and the Devil
    • Artist: Durer
    • Era: 16th cenutry Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • engraving - anything that is black has been cut away
    • idealization and naturalization
    • etching requires a chemical reaction with the metal
    • knight rides fearlessly through foreboding landscape
    • northern landscape
    • harsh nature
    • accompanied by faithful retriever
    • Chrsitian knight is a soldier of god
    • only armed with faith
    • death is holding an hour glass
    • death has snakes in his hair
    • devil on right
    • the knight triumphs because he has put on the "whole armor of god that he may be able to stand against the whiles of the devil"
    • strength, movement, and proportions from equestrian statues of Italian Renaissance
    • intense detail
    • hatching - in graving lines that are really close together and parallel - makes a deep shadow
    • Fall of Man
    • Artist: Durer
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • engraving
    • base bodies on Vitruvius' proportions
    • smaller heads
    • Eve has softer hair that is similar to Botticelli
    • Eve is a combination of Italian and Northern Renaissance ideals
    • northern European setting
    • his version of Garden of Eden
    • iconography - animals are symbols of four humors
    • Greek - bodily fluids determines personality
    • cat and mouse symbolize the relationship between Adam and Eve at the fall
    • figures clearly outlined against dark background
    • idealized form Classical statuary
    • individualize features - human models
    • Four Apostles
    • Artist: Durer
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • oil on panel
    • Lutherean style
    • made without a commission
    • presented to city fathers of Nuremberg to be hung in the city hall
    • John and Peter on left and Mark and Paul on right
    • Mark was an evangelist
    • compostitional layout is Lutheran based on the positioning of the figures
    • St. Peter who holds keys to Vatican is placed behind John who is focused on the bible alone - Protestantism
    • bible in front, open to a legible passage - in the beginning was the word and the word was god
    • bottom of panels there are quotations from each the evangelist's gospels in Luther's translation
    • individuality of faces, attire, and attributes
    • communicates integrity and spirituality
    • vivid color and bright lights
    • symmetryical
    • balanced figure
    • soft folds of drapery
    • deeply modeled
    • each represents one of the four humors
    • The Great Piece of Turf
    • Artist: Durer
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • watercolor
    • observation leads to truth - sight is the noblest sense of man
    • beauty lies in the most humble things
    • everything is scientifically accurate
    • dandelions, grape plantane, heath rush
    • Battle of Issus
    • Artist: Altdorfer
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • oil on panel
    • defeat of Darius by Alexander the Great at the town of Issus
    • Duke of Bavaria commissioned this
    • timing of the beginning for the campaign against the invading Turks
    • past classical battle to represent current battle
    • contemporary armor and alignment in extreme detail
    • 50/50 composition of figures and landscape
    • clash of craggy mountain peaks and still bodies of water
    • cosmological setting
    • eastern Mediterranean scene with a view of Greece and the Nile
    • sun is setting over vicotrious Greeks
    • small crescent moon, symbol of near east and it hovers over retreating Persians
    • French Ambassadors
    • Artist: Holbbein
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • only one signed with his whole name
    • artinant humanists are present
    • open hymn book with Luther's version of the ten commandments
    • double portrait
    • man on left holds daggard - 29 years old
    • wears necklace with a medallin of St. Micheal in the form of a dragon - chivalry
    • resting near a globe with detailed image of France Jean Le Gambia
    • George Thistle on right
    • he is 25 years old
    • he is not wearing a bishops attire - he had only been appointed
    • elaborate still-life inbetweem figures
    • globe also represents northwest passage
    • book open to page eight of book three which teaches merchants how to divide and anticipates the decimal a century early
    • arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy to be mastered
    • chart of heavens on upper shelf represents astronomy
    • broken lute symbolizes discord - religious strife of the time
    • men at the core front of their careers and all learning at the time
    • floor is a ornate mosaic design identical of floor in front of the high altar at West Minister Abbey
    • standing before the altar of learning
    • anamorphism - distortion of a form
    • first example of anamorphic used in a prominent place in an art piece
    • skull distorted in a way so that one has to stand to to one side to see it
    • 16th century people pushing science forward that are in contrast with church doctrine
    • Holbein sees death as an earthly gift
    • aware of mortality
    • crucifix in background
    • importance of religion
    • anamorphic skull is a transformed state of mind - old ideas into new ones - heliocentric world view
    • Francis I
    • Artist: Clouet
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • painted background made to look like satin material
    • oppulently dressed
    • sense of a worldy prince dressed in silk and brocades wearing a gold chain
    • medallion on chain which is the order of St. Micheal founded by Louis XI
    • looking down on the viewer
    • long nose and small eyes
    • sneaky or sly look
    • open relaxed hand position on dagger
    • hero of hundreds of gallant situations and a great lover
    • portrudes outside the frame, showing his greatness
    • flat lighting suppresses any sort of modeling - lack of realism
    • small head and wide neck
    • Money Changer and HisWife
    • Artist: Massys
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • checking the weight of the gold
    • detailed rendering of figures and scenery
    • insight into the developing merchantile practices of the time
    • Netherlandish values
    • mores and values
    • part of secular life
    • material world with reference to a moral and spiritual life
    • more important to lead a moral life than gain materialistic value
    • candle is allusion to Holy Spirit
    • couple establishes balance
    • vignettes represent idleness and gossip
    • "let the balance be just and the weights equal"
    • represents eventually last judgement
    • Meat Still-Life
    • Artist: Pieter Aertsen
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • genre scene - portrayal of everyday life
    • fish, pretzels, cheese, and butter along with meat
    • strategically placed religious images
    • background scenes
    •    - Joseph leading a donkey carrying Mary and the Christ child in background
    •    - Joseph stoops to offer olms to a beggar and his son
    •    - group of people going off to church
    • fish on platter symbolizes Christ and crucifixion
    • wine hanging in the rafters and pretzels are served as bread during lent
    • fish, pretzels, and wine are spiritual food
    • contrasts allusions to opposites
    • depicts gluttony, lust, and sloth
    • Hunters in the Snow
    • Artist: Bruegel
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • high horizon
    • cosmographical landscape
    • avoids classical elements
    • peasants are honest and true because they don't have excess
    • social comments
    • originally set of six, only five left
    • colors set the mood
    • realistic landscape with diagonal composition for recession into space
    • inspired by Chinese landscapes
    • orange browns guide eye through the painting - manipulative device that sets the mood
    • minaturistic and detailed
    • one bird overhead is symbolic of hope on its way because spring is coming
    • allusion to Holland escaping oppression
    • Netherlandish Proverbs
    • Artist: Bruegel
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • detailed and clever imagery
    • over 100 proverbs
    • birds eye view, perspective
    • reminiscent of Bosch
    • study of human nature
    • complexity of layout within landscape setting
    • teaching morality
    • Peasant Dance
    • Artist: Bruegel
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • color to manipulate the eye throughout the picture
    • no focus
    • strong but simplified modelling of figures
    • solidly drawn silhouettes
    • figures are robust
    • not complete birds eye view but one point perspective
    • peasants demonstrating a sinful lifestyle
    • peacock feather is a symbol of vanity
    • music is sinful
    • supposed to be a festival of a saint
    • jest, anger, and gluttony
    • Escorial
    • Artist: Juan de Herrera
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Location: near Madrid, Spain
    • Techniques:
    • constructed for Philip II
    • rugged terrain and barren mountains
    • royal mausoleum, church, monastery, and palace
    • grid like plan - grit iron where St Laurence was martyred, part of St. Escorial - represented Philip II's character, austere and conciencious, passionate catholic, pride in dynasties, stern determination to impose his will on the world
    • 625 feet wide 520 feet deep
    • simplistic in form
    • very severe
    • noble without arrogance
    • majestic without austentation
    • result is the Doric order severity from Classicism
    • three entrances with a dominant central portal framed by super imposed orders, topped by a pediment in the Italian fashion
    • central portico breaks the severely planar focus of the horizontal facade
    • four massive square towers that punctuate the corners of the complex
    • stress on the central axis
    • tied to Baroque palace facade
    • constructed of granite, very difficult stone to work with - conveys a feeling of starkness and gravity
    • strictly geometry
    • blocky walls and rounded arches
    • overwhelming strength and weight
    • monument to the collaboration between a great king and a remarkably understanding architect
    • Burial of Count Orgaz
    • Artist: El Greco
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • 300 years after the death of Count Orgaz
    • buried by St. Augustine and St. Stephen but they were alive at the same time as him - miraculously descended from heaven to bury the count
    • figures in 16th century attire
    • background filled with conquisatadors wearing black, brought Spain to the New World
    • they also lead the great armada against England and Holland after the peace two years
    • black primer creates grayish tones
    • no focus, manneristic
    • all figures are elongated and distorted
    • dramatic fluttering drapery
    • everyone on earth is static with heavy drapery
    • realism in earth with portrait painting of conquistadors
    • dynamic swirls of unearthly light and color
    • mystical, spiritual, and ecstatic devotion
    • Fray Hortensio Felix Paravincio
    • Artist: El Greco
    • Era: 16th Century Northern Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • a theologian, poet and a Trinitarian priest
    • studied a lot
    • elongated form especially in hands
    • grey tone - gives him a dark smoldering look
    • more like an apparition, spiritual type
    • surrendered body and soul to church
    • not realistic portrait of body but the spiritual side
    • seated shows his high rank
    • book represent his intellectual dedication
    • contrasting black and white garment which contrasts with square back leather chair
    • chair highlighted with gilt bronze, studs, and finials
    • pale face that is accented by his dark hair, eyebrows, and beard
    • austere because of dedication to church

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