ANSC 100

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ANSC 100
2012-10-21 00:49:09

Part 6: Zoonosis
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  1. Zoonosis
    • A disease shared between species which can infect humans
    • They are dynamic, flow and ebb, vector populations, climate changes, habitat alteration, mutations and alterations, etc
  2. Stats
    • 61% of 1415 infectious human pathogens are zoonoses
    • 75% of 175 notable "emerged" human infections are zoonotic
  3. Emerging Disease
    • Disease or infection whose incidence has increased or is expected to increase in a defined time period and location
    • Also consider circulation of potentially infectious/disease agents
    • A condition/agent may be emerging for a population, a subpopulation, a single host or group of hosts
    • An agent endemically present in one species may emerge in another species
    • A disease that has been successfully controlled in a population may reemerge
  4. Rudolf Virchow
    • Not a veterinarian, but founder of the medical disciplines of cellular pathology, comparative pathology (comparision of diseases common to humans and animals), and anthropology
    • "Between animal and human medicine there is no dividing line - nor should there be.  The object is different, but the experience obtained constitutes the basis of all medicine"
    • A mentor of William Osler
  5. Sir William Osler
    • Coined the term "One Medicine" - to represent the common approach and intersection of human and animal diseases and their diagnosis
    • Pathology (human or animal) was first taught in North America by Osler at the Montreal Veterinary College (founded at McGill in 1866)
    • Born in Ontario, studied Hog Cholera at Montreal Vet College, and determined and named the parasite causing verminous bronchitis in dogs, and taught the first vet. pathology course
    • Later Osler was the founding Physician-in-Chief of teh Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore
  6. Bovine tuberculosis and Brucellosis
    • Huge problem in 1936, killed and infected many Canadians who drank the unpastuerized milk.
    • Bovine TB now eradicated in Canada
  7. Famous zoonoses - still around
    • Bubonic Plague
    • Influenza
    • Bovine TB
    • Anthrax
    • Malaria
    • Yellow Fever
    • Rabies
  8. "new" diseases
    • West Nile Virus
    • Canine Parvo
    • Canine distemper virus crossed into wild felines
    • Exotic Newcastle disease
  9. Examples of Zoonotic Diseases in Canada
    • Bacteria: Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, Vector Borne, coxiella, lyme disease
    • Various Parasitic worms: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, toxoplasmosis
    • Viruses: West Nile and other encephalitis viruses
  10. Factors in Disease Emergence
    • Ecolofical changes
    • Human demographic changes and behaviour
    • Travel and commerce
    • Technology and industry
    • Microbial adaptation and change
    • The breakdown of public health measures
  11. Nipah Virus
    • Malaysia, pigs identified as source of disease
    • Decided to kill all the pigs, which devastated swine industry in Malaysia; industry and trade may take years to recover