GEO 102 Exam 2

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magreen91
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GEO 102 Exam 2
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2012-11-05 11:22:00
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Human Geography
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Human Geography at the University of Buffalo
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  1. Culture: Place and Space Relationship
    • Culture is a particular way of life, such as a set of skilled activities, values, and meanings surrounding a particular type of economic practice.
    • It is shaped by the places in which people live and make meaning from their lives. Social relations, politics, and economy all play a role in the production of cultural practices by different groups in different places.
  2. Role of Politics and Economy in Shaping Cultural Geography
    • The connections among people, places, and cultures are social creations that can be altered by new impullses from the economy or politics.
    • They are therefore always changing, somtimes in suble and other times in more dramatic ways.
    • Resultantly, a particular ethnic landscape may change dramatically after only a decade as the economy improves or declines and members of the group have access to additional or fewer resources that then shape their homes, vehicles, businesses, and more.
  3. How are differences in gender, classs, sexuality, race, ethnicity products of and influences on geography that cause variations of cultures?
    Cultural Groups ARE NOT Homegeneous. All women are not alike anymore than all working class people are. Where people live can have an important impact on their sexuality, for instance, when they living in a palce that is homophobic.
  4. Conceptual Changes in Cultural Geography
    Actor-Netowrk Theory and Non-Representational Theory are new ways of conceptualizing culture; they focus on the importance of objects and material practices and how they shape the ways we experience and conduct our daily lives.
  5. Globalization and Making the World More Local
    • Globalization is reshaping the world and bringing different cultural groups closer together than they have ever been previously, there is no conclusive evidence that globalization leads to cultural homogenization.
    • Instead it seems to be a differential process, which means that is it deployed differently in different places and experience and responded to differently by the people who live in those places.
  6. Ancillary Industries
    industries that manufacture parts and omponents to be used by larger industries
  7. Actor-Network Theory
    an orientation that views the world as composed of "heterogenous things" including humans and non-humans and objects.
  8. Affect
    emotions that are embodied reactions to the social and physical environment
  9. Agglomeration Diseconomies
    the negative economic effects of urbanization and the local concentration of industry
  10. Aquaculture
    the cultivation of fish and shellfish under controlled conditions, usually in coastal lagoons
  11. Agriculture
    a science, art, and business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit
  12. Agricultural Industrialization
    process in which the farm moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to becoming one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and retailing.
  13. Agribusiness
    a set of economic and political relationships that organizes agro-food production from the development of seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product.
  14. Agrarian
    referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there.
  15. Agglomeration Effects
    interdependence associated with various kinds of economic linkages, including the cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among functionally related activities.
  16. Autarky
    an economic policy or situation in which a nation is independent of international trade and not reliant upon imported goods
  17. Backwash Effects
    the negative impacts on a region or regions of the economic growth of some other region
  18. Biofuels
    renewable fuels from biological materials than can be regenerated.
  19. Biopharming
    an application of biotech in which genes from other life forms like plants animals or human are inserted into a host plant.
  20. Biorevolution
    the genetic engineering of plants and animals with the potential to exceed the productivity of the Green Revolution.
  21. Biotechnology
    technique that uses living organisms to make or modify products to improve plants and animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
  22. Blue Revolution
    the introduction of new production techniques, processing technology, infrastructure, and larger, motorized boats as well as the application of transgenics into peripheral country fisheries.
  23. Borlaug Hypothesis
    restricting crop usage to traditional low yield methods such as organic farming in the face of rising global food demand would require either the world population to decrease or the further conversion of forest land into cropland.
  24. Carrying Capacity
    the max number of users that can be sustained by a given set of natural resources
  25. Cultural Complex
    combination of traits characteristics of a particular group
  26. Cultural Geography
    how space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space, place, and landscape.
  27. Cultural Hearths
    the geographic origins of sources of innovations, ideas, and ideologies.
  28. Conglomerate Companies
    companies that have diversified into various economic activities, usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions.
  29. Creative Destruction
    the withdrawal of investments from activities (and regions) that yield low rates of profit in order to reinvest in new activities (and new places).
  30. Cultural Landscape
    a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and a natural environment.
  31. Cultural Nationalism
    an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially from the penetrating influence of U.S. culture.
  32. Cultural Region
    the areas within which a particular cultural system prevails.
  33. Crop Rotation
    method of maintaining soul fertility in which the fields under cultivation remain the same but the crop being planted is changed.
  34. Cost/Price Squeeze
    the simultaneous decrease in selling prices and rise in production costs that reduce a business profit margin
  35. Conventional Farming
    approach that uses chemicals in the form of plant protectants and fertilizers, or intensive, hormone-based practices in breeding and raising animals.
  36. Contract Farming
    an agreement between farmers and processing and/or marketinf rism for the production, supply, and purchase of agricultural products from beef, cotton, to milk and veggies.
  37. Commerical Agriculture
    farming primarily for sale, not direct consumption
  38. Chemical Farming
    application of fertizilizers to the soil, and other herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to crops, in order to enhance yields.
  39. Cumulative Causation
    a spiral buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the developent of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
  40. Cultural System
    a collection of interacting elements that taken together shape a group's collective identity
  41. Cultural Trait
    a single aspect of the complex routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group
  42. Culture
    a shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life.
  43. Cosmopolitanism
    an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent experiences, images, and products from different cultures
  44. Dependency
    high level of reliance by a country on foreign enterprises, investment, or technology
  45. Diaspora
    spatial dispersion of a previously homogenous group
  46. Dialects
    regional variations of standard languages
  47. Derelict Landscapes
    landscapes that have experienced abandonment misuse, disinvestment, or vandalism
  48. Digital Divide
    inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology, ie. the internet
  49. Double Cropping
    occurs in milder climates where fields are planted and harvested more than 1 per year
  50. Ethology
    scientific study of the formation and evolution of human customs and beliefs
  51. Ecological Footprint
    measure of human pressures on the environment from the consumption of renewable resources and the production of pollution indicating how much space a population needs compared to whats available
  52. Elasticty of Demand
    degree to which levels of demand for a product or service change in response to changes in prices
  53. Export Proccessing Zones EPZs
    small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract export orientated industries
  54. External Economies
    cost savings that result from circumstances beyond a firm's own organization and methods of production.
  55. Ethnicity
    socially created system of rules about who belongs and who does not belong to a particular group based upon actual or perceived communality
  56. Famine
    acute starvation associated with a sharp increase in mortality
  57. Fast Food
    edibles that can be prepared and served very quickly sold in a restaurant, and served to customers in packaged form.
  58. Food Manufacturing
    adding value to agricultural products through a range of treatments such as processing, canning, refining, packing, and packaging that occur off the farm and before products reach the market.
  59. Food Regime
    specific set of links that exist among food production and consumption and capital investment and accumulation opportunities
  60. Food Security
    assured access by a person, household, or even a country to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives
  61. Food Sovereignty
    right of peoples, communities, and countries to define own agriculture, labor, fishing, food, and land policies that are ecologically, socially, economically, and culturally appropriate to their unique circumstances.
  62. Food Supply Chain
    • 5 Cdentral and Connected Sectors
    • Inputs, Production, Processing, Distibution, and Consumption
    • 4 Contextual Elements Acting as External Mediating Forces
    • The state,international trade, the physical environment, and credit and finance
  63. Foreign Direct Investment
    total of overseas business investment made by private companies
  64. Fordism
    principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques.
  65. Flexible Production Systems
    ability of manufacturers to shift quickly and efficiently from one level of output to another, or from one product configuration to another.
  66. Folk Culture
    traditional practices of small groups, especially rural people with a simple lifestyle who are seen to be homogenous in their belief systems and practices
  67. Green Revolution
    export of a technological package of fertilizers and high yielding seeds from the core to the periphery to increase global agriculutural productivity
  68. Growth Poles
    economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries
  69. Globalized Agriculture
    system of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
  70. Genetically Modified Organism
    any organism that has had its DNA modified in a laboratory rather than through cross-pollination or other forms of evolution.
  71. Gross National Income
    similar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad.
  72. Gross Domestic Product GDP
    estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services produced by a country in a particular year.
  73. Geographical Path Dependence
    historical relationships between the present activities association with a place and the past experiences of that place
  74. Genre De Vie
    functionally organizaed way of life that is seen to be characteristic of a particular cultural group
  75. Hunting and Gathering
    people feed themselves through hunting wild animals and gathering fruits, nuts, and other edible plants
  76. Historical Geography
    geography of the past
  77. Hybridity
    A mixing of different types; in cultural geography, hybridity is most often associated with movements across a binary of for instance racial categories of black and white such that identities are more multuple and ambivalent
  78. Hajj
    religious pilgrimage
  79. Humanistic Approach
    point of view that places the individual, especially individual vales, meaning systems, intentions, and conscious acts - at the center of analysis
  80. International Division of Labor
    specialization, by countries, in particular prodcuts for export
  81. Initial Advantage
    critical importance of an early start in economic development; a special case of external economies
  82. Infrastructure (Fixed Social Capital)
    underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
  83. Import Subsitution
    process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that formerly were bought from foreign producers
  84. Intertillage
    practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden
  85. Intenisve Subsistence Agriculture
    practice that involves the effective and efficient use - usually through a considerable expendicture of human labor and application of fertilizer - of a small parcel of land in order to maximize crop yield
  86. Islamism
    anticolonial, antiimperial, and generally anticore political movement
  87. Islam
    arabic term that means submission to God's will
  88. Just In Time Production
    manufacturing process in which daily or hourly delivery schedules of materials allow for minimal or zero inventories
  89. Kinship
    relationship based on blood, marriage, or adoption
  90. Language Branch
    collection of languages that possess a definite common origin but have to split into individuals languages
  91. Landscape as Text
    idea that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individuals
  92. Localized Economies
    cost savings that accrue to particular industries as a result of clustering together at a specific location
  93. Language Group
    collection of several individual languages that are part of a language branch, share a common origin, and have a similar grammar and vocab
  94. Language
    communicating ideas or feelings by means of a conventionalized system of signs, gestures, marks, or vocal sounds
  95. Local Food
    food that is organically grown and produced within a fairly limited distance from where it is consumed
  96. Language Family
    collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical origin
  97. Modernity
    forward looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, and progress
  98. Malnutrition
    the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function
  99. Mechanization
    replacement of human farm labor with machines
  100. Muslim
    member of the islamic community of believers whose duty is obedience and submission to the will of God
  101. Materialism
    • a theory which emphasizes that the material world -- its objects and non-human entities is at least partly seperate from humans and possesses the power to affect humans
    • Materialism attempts to understand the ways that specific properties of material things affective the interactions between humans and nonhumans entities
  102. Newly Industrializing Countries NIC
    countries formerly peripheral within the world system that have acquired a significant industrial sector, usually through foreign direct investment
  103. Neoliberal Policies
    economic policies that are predicated on a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political and social life.
  104. Neo-Fordism
    economic principles in which the logic of mass production couple with mass consumption is modified by the addition of more flexible production, distribution, and marketing systems.
  105. Nontraditional agriculutral exports NTAEs
    new export crops that contrast with traditional exports
  106. Non-representational theory
    an approach to human and non-human practices that explores how they are performed and what are their effects such as how music produces in humans both remembering and forgetting
  107. Offshore Financial Centers
    islands or microstates that have become a specialized node in the geography of worldwide financial flows
  108. Organic Farming
    farming or animal husbandry done without commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, or growth hormones
  109. Proxemics
    study of the social and cultural meanings that people give to personal space
  110. Pastoralism
    subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of  animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing
  111. Postmodernity
    view of the world that emphasizes an openess to a range of perspectives in social inquiry, artistic expression, and political empowerment
  112. Purchasing Power Parity or PPP
    measures how much of a common "market basket" of goods and services each currency can purchase locally, including goods and services that are not traded internationally
  113. Producer Services
    services that enhane the productivity or efficiency of other firms activities or that enable them to maintain specialized roles
  114. Primary Activities
    economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind
  115. Pop Culture
    practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogenous and change frequently, often in response to commerical products.
  116. Quaternary Activities
    economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information
  117. Rites of Passage
    ceremonial acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life, such as birth, menstruation, and other markers of adulthood such as marriage
  118. Race
    problematic classification of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics
  119. Racialization
    practice of categorizing people according to race or of imposing a racial character or context
  120. Religion
    belief system and set of practices that recognize the existence of a power higher than humans
  121. Semiotics
    practice of writing and reading signs
  122. Sacred Space
    area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a site of special religious experiences or events
  123. Sexuality
    set of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires
  124. Swidden
    land that is cleared using the slash-and-burn process and is ready for cultivation
  125. Sustainable Development
    vision of development that seeks a balance among economic growth, environmental impacts, and social equity
  126. Subsistence Agriculture
    farming for direct consumption by the producers; not for sale
  127. Slow Food
    attempt to resist fast food by preserving the cultural cuisine and the associated food and farming of an eco-region
  128. Slash and Burn (Swidden)
    system of cultivation in which plants are cropped close to the ground, left to dry for a period, and then ignited
  129. Strategic Alliances
    commerical agreements between transnational corperations, usually involving shared technologies, marketing networks, market research, or product development
  130. Spread Affects
    positive impacts on a region or regions of the economic growth of some other region
  131. Secondary Activities
    economic activities that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods.
  132. Shifting Cultivation
    system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs
  133. Territoriality
    attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or territory
  134. Tribe
    form of social identity created by groups who share a set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action
  135. topophilia
    emotions and meanings associated with particualr places that have become significant to individuals
  136. Terms of Trade
    ratio of prices at which exports and imports are exchanged
  137. Tertiary Activities
    economic activities involving the sale and exchange of goods and services
  138. Trading Blocs
    groups of countries with formalized systems of trading agreements
  139. Transhumance
    movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms
  140. Undernutrition
    inadequate intake of one or more nutrients or calories
  141. Urban Agriculture
    establishment or performance of agricultural practices in or near an urban or city like setting
  142. Vertical Disintegration
    evolution from large, functionally integrated firms within a given industry toward networks of specialized firms, subcontractors, and suppliers.
  143. World City
    city in which a disproportionate part of the words most important bsuiness conducted.
  144. World Music
    musical genre defined largely in reponse to the sudden increase of non-english language recordings released in the UK and the USA in the 1980s
  145. How does the Environment shape people and how do people shape the environment?
    • People filter information from their environments through nuerophysiological and psychological processes, personality, and culture to produce congnitive images on their environment.
    • Human-Environment relationship results in a variety of ways of understanding the world around us as well as different ways of being in the world as informatino about our environment is filtered by people.
  146. Placemaking Impact on Culture
    Places are the result of a wide range of forces from economic to social. Economically, places emerge through all sorts of transactions that result from the complexities of the land market. But places are more than just real estate. They can reflect tensions between social groups as well as harmonious intereaction.
  147. How do Cultural Identities and Status Categories influence the ways people experience and understand landscapes and are able to shape landscapes themselves?
    Among the most important relations are the cultural identities of race, class, gender, enthicity, and sexuality. Often these identities come together in a group, and their influence in combination becomes central to our undestanding of how group identity shapes space and is shaped by it.
  148. How do codes signify important information about landscapes in a process known as semiotics?
    Landscapes as different from each other as shopping malls and war memorials can be understood in terms of their semiotics, although it is important to appreciate that even when certain landscapes have intended meanings by those who have created them, those who perceive them may make their own sense of that landscape.
  149. How has globalization occured in parallel to the transition to Modernity to Post Modernity and how are they different?
    Material consumption has become central to the repertoire of symbols, beliefs, and practices of post modern cultures. As a result, the "culture industries", advertising, publishing, communications media, and popular entertainment-have also become important shapers of spaces, places, and landscapes as have global products. In this way, landscapes can become familair in foreign places like a McDonalds in Bangkok, Thailand, or a fancy shopping mall in Istanbul, Turkey that contains a wide array of global brands.
  150. What is the degree of the unevenness in economic development at the natioanl and international scales?
    • At the global scale, unevenness takes the form of core-periphery contrasts. Similar core-periphery contrasts exist at the regional scale.
    • The core regions within the world-system--North America--Europe--and Japan have the most diversified economies, the most advanced technologies, the highest levels of productivity, and the highest levels of prosperity.
    • Other countries and regions-the periphery and semi-periphery of the world sytem are often referred to as developing or less developed.
    • The average GNA per capita of the ten most prosperous countries in the world is 67 times greather than the GNA per capita of the ten poorest countries.
    • Overall, more than 80 percent of the world population live in countries where income differentials are widening
  151. How have geographic divisions of labor evolved with the growth of the world system and the accompanying variations of economic structure?
    • Geographical divisions of labor are national, regional, and locally based economic specializations in primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary activities.
    • The relationship between changing regional economic specialization and changing levels of propserity has prompted interpreation of economic development in distinctive stages.
    • A new international division of labor was initiated in 1970s as a result of a major wave of corporate globalization. This new international division of labor has resulted in 3 main changes:
    • 1) decline of the USA as an Industrial Producer
    • 2) the decentralization of manufacturing production from the worlds core regions to the worlds semiperipheral and peripheral countries
    • 3) resulted in the emergence of new specializations in high tech manufacturing and producer services within the core regions of the world system.
  152. How are regional cores of economic development created?
    • Any significant initial local economic advantage such as existing labor markets, consumer markets, frameworks if fixed capital, tend to be reinforced through a process of cumulative causation, a spiral building of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
    • The agglomeration effects that are associatated with various kinds of economic linkages and interdependencies-the cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among functionally related activities-are particulary important in driving cumulative causation.
    • Spirals of local growth tend to attact people and investment funds from other areas. According to the basic principles of spatial interaction, these flows tend to be strongest from nearby regions and those with the lowest wages, fewest job opportunties, or least attractive investment opportunities.
  153. How can spirals of economic development be arrested at the onset of disinvestment or deindustrialization?
    • Core-periphery patterns and relationships can be modified by the changes that can slow or modify the spiral of cumulative causation.
    • The main factor is the development of agglomeration diseconomies, the negative effects of urbanization, and the local concentration of industry.
    • Spirals of cumulative causation can also be undermined by changes in the relative costs of the factors of land, labor, or capital; by the obsolenscence of infrastructure and technology; or by the process of import subsitution, whereby goods and services previously imported from core regions come to be replaced by locally made goods and locally provided services.
    • The capital made available from disinvestment in core regions becomes available for investment by entrenprenuers in new ventures based on innovative products and innovative production technologies. This process is often referred to as a creative destruction.
  154. How has globalization exposed economic development patterns and processes to external influences?
    • The globalization of the world economy involves a new international division of labor in association with the internationalization of finance, the deployment of new techonlogies, and the homogenization of consumer markets. This new framework for economic geography has meant that the lives of people in different parts of the world have become increasingly interwined.
    • Transnational corporations now control a large fraction of the worlds productive assets, and the largest of them are more powerful, in economic terms, than most soverign nations.
    • As these nations have restructured their activities and redeployed their resources among different countries, regions, and places, they have created many new linkages and interdependencies among places and regions around the world. Even small and medium-sized companies involved in the myriad global assembly lines and supply chains that characterize the contemporary world economy, linking the fortunes of diverse and often distant local economies.
  155. How does traditional agriculture differ across the globe?
    • Although traditional agricultural practices, including subsistence farming, shifting cultivation, and pastoralism, no longer dominate agricultural practices on a global scale, they are still engaged in throughout the world, in some cases alongside more mechanized forms. 
    • Globalization, in addition to restructuring entire national farming systems, has also transferred farming households in the core, periphery, and semi-periphery. Thus, traditional forms of agriculture are waning as more and more places are irresistibly drawn into a globalized economy supported by a strong commerical agricultural sector.
  156. What are the 3 revolutionary phases of agriculture development from the domestication of plants and animals to the latest developments in biotechnology and industrial revolution?
    • The 3 phases have been adopted and adapted to differing degrees around the globe based on development, culture, and physical geography. 
    • 1st Phase: Involved the Domestication of Seeds and Animals
    • 2nd Phase: Revolved around the Improvement of Outputs and Innovations for Making Farming More Efficient such as Improved Yoke for Oxen
    • 3rd Phase: Based on Inputs to Production such as Fertilizers and Field Drainage Systems.
  157. How have forces, institutions, and organizational forms of globalization transformed agriculture?
    • Two of the most important forces behind agricultural transformation are multinational and transnational corporations and states. Institutions like the WTO as well as regional asscoiations like the EU have also been important influences. 
    • And the organization of agriculture itself has experienced signficant changes as it has moved from a family orientated business model to a corporate undertaking that stretches across national boundaries.
  158. Describe the Organization of the Agro-Commodity system including the diff. economic sectors and corporate forms.
    • The farm is no longer the central piece in the chain of agricultural organization but one of several important components that include seed and fertilizer manufacturers, food processesors, food distributors, and consumers. 
    • The organizational structure of agriculture is composed of five central and connected sectors (inputs, production, processing, distribution, and consumption) with four contextual elements acting as external mediating forces (the state, international trade, the physical environment, and credit and finance).
  159. How has agriculture transformed the environment including soil erosion, desertification, deforestation,soil and water pollution, and plant/animal specifies degradtion?
    • While most of the core countries have instituted legislation to address some of the environmental problems association with agriculture, these problems persist throughout the global system to greater and lesser degrees. 
    • Agriculture industrialfication has multipled and spread environmental impacts so that some parts of the globe are at crisis stage.
    • In some regions, the agricultural system has led to overproduction of foodstuffs, but on others the quantity and quality of food production is severaly limited by physical constraints and environmental degradation. 
    • The challenge in the 21st century is to work toward a more sustainable relationship between humans and the environment, especially in respects to food production.
  160. Tastes that change rapidly according to the latest fad, and with an emphasis on commercial products, are often considered an aspect of which type of culture?
    These are all examples of popular culture.
  161. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects geographer Carl Sauer's view of cultural landscapes?
    Cultural landscapes result from a given culture using, developing, and leaving its mark on the natural landscape. Sauer believed that cultural landscapes were the reflection of a culture on the natural landscape.
  162. Unlike other introductory human geography texts, this text does not make a distinction between _________.
    folk culture and popular culture
  163. Rites of Passage
    anything that acknowledges the advancement or maturity or growth of someone such as marriage, attaining driver's license, becoming of age in some religions, etc.
  164. Diaspora
    The dispersion across space of a homogenous cultural group (either through voluntary migration, or through forced migration).The important distinction between diaspora and migration or diffusion is that the group begins as a "homogenous" cultural group.
  165. How are Pope John Paul II and the Dalai Lama similar?
    • They both traveled tirelessly throughout the world as representatives of their religions.
    • They both traveled a great deal, although their reasons for traveling may have been slightly different
  166. Language group
    a collection of languages that share a language branch, share a common origin, and have similar grammar and vocabulary
  167. Role of English in India?
    English is spoken by only a few Indians, but it is the language of upward social mobility. Fewer than 6% of Indians speak English, but it is the language of higher education and government.
  168. Where is hip-hop's culture hearth believed to be located?
    Although now a global phenomenon, hip-hop first emerged in African American inner-city neighborhoods in New York City in the late 1970s.
  169. kinship
    a relationship based on blood, marriage, or adoption and is expandable to include a shared notion of relationship among members
  170. What is the second-largest faith in terms of number of followers, after Christianity?
    Islam
  171. the natural landscape
    The weather, soil type, mineral resources, and plant life
  172. Gender
    Gender relates to what a person does, the self that one performs to the world, and the connection of these acts to standard categories of male, female, or, sometimes, transgender.
  173. Within what world region would one NOT find significant numbers of Muslims?
    Islam predominates in North Africa, the Middle East, much of Southwest Asia, and Indonesia.
  174. Race
    Although there is NO biological truth to the idea of race, it has nonetheless been used as a way to differentiate groups of people based on physical differences.
  175. Of the world's four major religions—Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism—the oldest is ...
     Of the world's major religions, Hinduism was the first to emerge, approximately 4,000 years ago.
  176. The association between globalization and Americanization?
    Despite the fact that American products are found throughout the globe, they are not the only products circulating widely, nor are they leading to a single American version of global culture.
  177. Nollywood
    Although they may seem inferior to Hollywood films, Nollywood films share a unique style of filmmaking and storytelling that appeals to a widespread audience, both in Nigeria and around the world.
  178. The Qur'an and the Sunna are fundamental sources of doctrine and practice to what religion?
    Islam
  179. Approximately one-half of the human population speaks a language that is included within what language family?
    Indo-European. Many individual languages are included within this language family, including English, French, Spanish, Hindi, and Russian
  180. The study of human customs and beliefs and includes the study of the sense of human territoriality?
    ethology
  181. After graduation, you may feel a sense of attachment to your university and the town or region where it is located. Which of the following words describes this feeling?
    • topophilia
    • The name for this sensation means "love of place."
  182. derelict landscape
    landscapes that have experienced avandonment, misuse, disinvestment, or vandalism
  183. Globalization throughout the world, including peripheral areas of the globe, seems to homogenize people and places in many ways. However, people have reacted by ...
    people have not reacted to globalization by rejecting technology; in general, people have NOT rejected technological advancement.
  184. why Jerusalem is a place of struggle?
    • Jews, Christians, and Muslims consider some of the same sites to be sacred, thereby causing conflict over who has access to those sites.
    • Some sites, such as the Dome of the Rock, have special significance to more than one religion and are the source of continual anger.
  185. Cosmopolitanism
    • Cosmopolitanism is characterized by a willingness to engage with experiences, people, and products from other cultures.
    • It fosters curiousity about all places, people, and culture together with at least a ability to map, situate.
  186. heritage industry
    • recreation and reurbishment of historic districts and settings are main elements of this.
    • This industry is based on the commercial explitation of the histories of peoples and places, is now worldwide, as evident by the involvement of UNESCO a branch of the U.N.
  187. "slow city" movement?
    The slow city movement supports working toward a more locally oriented, calmer, and less polluted environment. Increasing transportation infrastructure would diminish all of these elements.
  188. semiotic relationship with a landscape?
    signs and symbols that are attached to a landscape. Semiotics aserts that innumerable signs are embedded or displayed in landscape, space, and place, sending messages about identy, values, beliefs, and practices.
  189. How has the Internet provided the basis for a massive shift in patterns of social interaction, a foundation for new forms of human consciousness, and a new medium for cultural change?
  190. Identify the river where sacred pilgrimage sites for Hindus are located.
  191. ordinary landscape
    • They symbolize entire nations or cultures ... for example the new england townscape is widely taken to represent not just a certain type of regional architecture but of what americans recognize as a intimate, family centered, god fearing community.
    • instruments of social and cultural power that naturalize political economic structures as if they were simply given and inevitable. They perform vital functions of social regulation.
  192. How are Angkor Wat, Mecca, and Jerusalem related?
    Angkor Wat is sacred for Hindus; Jerusalem is sacred for Christians, Muslims, and Jews; and Mecca is sacred for Muslims.
  193. Proxemics is the study of __________.
    Proxemics is the study of the meanings that people attach to personal space.
  194.  modernity
    Modernity is a forward-looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, and progress. It does not emphasize emotion.
  195. Paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks all constitute ways in which people develop _____ of places.
    cognitive images
  196. concept of territoriality?
    refers to the persistent attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or territory.
  197. Begin Chapter 7 Quiz Review
  198. Countries of the global periphery are sometimes referred to as ________.
    Although the term Third World originally referred to politically nonaligned countries, the term has become associated with less developed, peripheral countries.
  199. Trading blocs can be characterized as __________.
    groups of countries with formal trade agreements, often connected through proximity or past history
  200. example of autarky?
    Countries with a high degree of autarky are typically countries in the periphery that participate very little in global trade.
  201. Generally speaking, gross national incomes per capita are LOWEST in which of the following?
    Many African countries exhibit gross national incomes per capita of less than $2,500.
  202. The single most important commodity in world trade, accounting for more than 20% of total trade by value, is ________.
     Oil is now the most important single commodity in world trade, making up more than 20% of the total by value in 2010.
  203. What percentage of Earth's land area is NOT suitable for any productive form of arable farming?
    • Over 50%
    • The percentage of Earth's land area that is unsuitable for any productive form of arable farming is higher.
  204. To offset trade imbalances, and in an attempt to diversify their local manufacturing sectors, some peripheral countries have tried ________.
    The process is called import substitution.
  205.  maquiladora?
     A maquiladora is a factory located near the U.S. –Mexico border where products can be made without paying duties.
  206. Steelmaking, food processing, automobile assembly, and garment manufacturing are all activities that are a part of what economic sector?
    • the secondary sector
    • Activities in the primary sector include agriculture, fishing, and mining.
  207. The initiation of China's _____ policy is believed to have been largely responsible for its impressive economic growth over the past 40 years.
    • Open-Door Policy 
    • This is the name associated with Deng Xiaoping's promotion of private entrepreneurship and market mechanisms in integrating China with the world economy.
  208. Identify the largest economic sector in terms of the labor force in the United States.
    The largest sector is the tertiary. This involves the sale and exchange of goods and services. They include warehousing, retail stores, personal services such as hairdressing, and commercial services like accounting.
  209. Quaternary Activities
    economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information. This incldues data processing, information retreival, education, and R&D
  210. Primary Activities
    are those concerned with directly with natural resources of any kind; include agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry.
  211. Secondary Activities
    these transform, fabricate, or assemble, refinish, or pacjage manufactured goods derived from primary activies.
  212. Why is Rostow's Model Too Simplistic?
  213. example of creative destruction?
    only the example of the dismantling and later construction of a factory addresses the basis of the idea of creative destruction.
  214. growth pole?
    a region purposefully established to promote one or more high-growth industries, with the hope that the region will lead to growth in nearby industries.  A successful example is the French "technopoles," which have led to further economic development in the region.
  215. What is Semiotics?
    The Written Code of the Landscape
  216. Biggest Issue of Agriculture?
    Availability of Food and its Quality
  217. Carl Sauer
    Belived that the Cultural Landscape was a direct result of the vales and beliefs that were engraved on the natural landscape when a certain cultural group stayed on the land.
  218. Where is the lutheran population the grestest?
    Upper Midwest United States
  219. Culutral Hearths
    source of innovations, origins of ideas and ideologies
  220. Where did Hinduism, Buddhsm, and Christianity Orginiate?
    ASIA
  221. Where is Buddisms Cultural Hearth?
    INDIA
  222. Where are the most films produced?
    India
  223. Iran, Pakisstan, and India are part of what language group?
    Indo European
  224. Greatest Baptist Population?
    South USA
  225. Roman Catholic Christianity Greatests In?
    South Europe and South America
  226. Vulgaria
    Describe American Suburbs!
  227. Not a factor in Cognitive Images?
    Territorality
  228. Modernity
    Reason, Rationalit, Creativity, Novelty, Progress
  229. If traveling by sea to mecca ...
    you would cross from southeast asia
  230. Lowest Income Country?
    Ethiopia
  231. Agglomeration Effects
    Cost Advantages due to closeness of related activites
  232. Gapa Between Reich and Poor
    has increased increased steadily
  233. Primary Activies are highest in
    AfRIca .... then south asia ... Lowest in South America
  234. Fair Trade
    social dimension of trade across all participants
  235. sub saharan africa
    is excldued from major trade blocs
  236. Example of Shifting Cultivation Area?
    Tropical Forests
  237. Agricultural Revolution that began in New World?
    3rd Agricultural Revolution
  238. Not a seed hearth of the 1st revolution?
    Austrialia
  239. China uses more fertilizer than USA
  240. Dair Farming is prevalent in cooler regions
  241. The Increased Usage of LAnd for Biofuel production is ...
    increasing malnutrition and undernutrition
  242. most subsidized?
    fossil fuels then food production (agricultural support)

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