exam 4 Ch.18

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Shontae
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exam 4 Ch.18
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2012-10-21 03:43:13
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ch.18
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  1. What is a sensory RECEPTOR and what does it do?
    a specialized cell that monitors conditions in the body or external environment. Anything that changes
  2. What ALTERS the production of ACTION POTENTIAL of a sensory neuron
    stimulation of the receptor, it can affect its rate, or the fact that it fires or not
  3. What is a SENSATION
    sensory information arriving at the CNS
  4. What is a PERCEPTION?
    conscoius awareness of a sensation. the way your brain percieves an image 
  5. What are GENERAL SENSES? (examples)
    • Temperature
    • Pain
    • touch
    • pressure
    • vibration
    • proprioception
  6. Where do the SENSATIONS of GENERAL SENSES end up?
    at the primary sensory cortex
  7. What are SPECIAL SENSES? (examples)
    • (only recieve specific senses, more complex)
    • Smell
    • Taste
    • Balance
    • Hearing
    • Vision
  8. What is RECEPTOR SPECIFICITY?
    each receptor responds to one type of stimulus
  9. What is a RECEPTOR FIELD?
    the area that a receptor monitors
  10. What is a TONIC RECEPTOR?
    one that is always sending signals, its frequency changes based on action potentials
  11. What is a PHASIC RECEPTOR?
    sned action potential only if stimulated
  12. What is PERIPHERAL ADAPTATION?
    receptors may stop sending action potential even if the stimulus is still present
  13. What is CENTRAL ADAPTATION?
    CNS ignoring an action potential from a receptor
  14. Receptors for GENERAL SENSES
    • Exteroreceptors                    Chemoreceptors
    • Proprioceptors
    • Interoceptors
    • Nociceptors
    • Thermoreceptors
    • Mechanoreceptors
  15. What is the PURPOSE of EXTEROCEPTORS?
    provide information about the external environment (ex. temperature on outside on body)
  16. What is the PURPOSE of PROPRIOCEPTORS?
    monitor body position (ex. if standing upright)
  17. What type of stimulus do NOCICEPTORS respond to?
    tissue damage
  18. What type of stimuls do THERMORECEPTORS respond to?
    change in temperature
  19. What type of stimulus do MECHANORECEPTORS respod to?
    physical distortion, contact, or pressure
  20. What type of stimulus do CHEMORECEPTORS respond to?
    chemical compositionof body fluids
  21. Complete the sentence about SENSORY LIMITATIONS:
    Humans do not have ________ for every possible _______.
    receptors, stimulus
  22. Complete the sentence about SENSORY LIMITATIONS:
    Our receptors have characteristic  ranges of `_________.
    sensitivity
  23. What must a stimulus be interpreted by? What is our perception of a stimulus?
    Must be interpreted by the CNS, Our perception is an interpretation thatis not always a reality.
  24. OLFACATION:
    smell, a special sense
  25. CHEMORECEPORS in OLFACATION and location
    the dendrites of bipolar neurons, found on mucous membranes of nasal cavity, inferior to cribriform plate
  26. PATHWAY of OLFACATION
    • 1) Chemical in air triggers Action Potential in dendrites
    • 2) conducted to cribriform plate
    • 3) axon synapses with olfactory bulb neurons
    • 4) axons of cranial nerve I signal brain along olfactory tract to olfactory cortex (temporal lobe)
  27. things to REMEMBER about OLFACATION
    • 1) the only sense that bypasses the Thalamus (relay station)
    • 2) only sense that stimulates limbic system (emotion, makes it powerful)
    • 3) highly adaptable (you register it, then ignore it) 
  28. What are GUSTATORY RECEPTORS?
    clustered in taste buds, they have gustatory cells that extend taste hairs through a taste pore
  29. the 3 types of PAPILLAE (epithelial projections)
    • filiform
    • fungiform
    • circumvallate
  30. The 4 PRIMAMRY TASTES
    • salty
    • sweet
    • bitter
    • sour
    • water and umami
  31. Accessory structures of the eye
    • eyelids (palpebra)
    • lacrimal apparatus
  32. Layers of the EYE
    • Fibrous Tunic
    • Vascular Tunic
    • Neural Tunic
  33. What is the SCLERA?
    white of the eye
  34. What is the CORNEA? its PURPOSE?
    clear layer of connective tissue, lets light in
  35. What is the IRIS? its PURPOSE?
    pigment around pupil, controls size of pupil (how much light goes into eye)
  36. What do the CILIARY BODIES of the eye do?
    pull on the lens to focus
  37. What is the CHOROID of the eye for?
    where melanocytes create pigment, it catches extra light
  38. What is significant about the MACULA LUTEA?
    it has a lot of cones, but no rods, for sharp focus
  39. What happens in the RETINA?
    where all the light sensing happens
  40. What are RODS?
    photoreceptors that are for color and bright light
  41. What are CONES?
    photoreceptors that are for dim light and shades of gray
  42. What is the OPTIC DISK?
    a blind spot, where the optic nerve exits the eye
  43. What is important about the LENS of the eye?
    has specialized cells, is slow to repair itself

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