ANTH 101 CH 12 and 15
Card Set Information
ANTH 101 CH 12 and 15
Religion Global Issues
religion and global issues
belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces
bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship
Communitas (intense community spirit)
religious effervesence (powerful emotional feelings)
Bronislaw Malinowski: Religion
"___ is born out of the real tragedies of human life."
Bronislaw Malinowski: Magic
___ is used to establish control.
Biological and Physiological
Bronislaw Malinowski's functionalist school of thought as it relates to religion:
___ ___ exist due to their ability to fulfill ___ and ___ needs.
Intense feeling of social solidarity
belief in souls or doubles that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and the like phenomena
belief in immanent supernatural domain or life force, potentially subject to human manipulation (Star Wars - the Force)
impersonal sacred force (Melanesia/Polynesia)
prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions, sacred and forbidden
using supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
- associated with animism, mana, polytheism, monotheism
Imitative / Contagious
Magic can be ___ (as with voodoo dolls) or ___ (accomplished through contact).
Magic can be found in cultures with ___ religious beliefs.
___ ___ is defined as a sacred, impersonal force (like Western concept of "luck")
Polynesian mana / Taboo
___ ___ and related concept of ___ are related to the more hierarchial nature of Polynesian society.
formal (stylized), repetitive, stereotyped behavior, based on a liturgical order
___ may not relieve anxiety, but create additional anxiety and stress for the individual
Rituals and Stress
Build up stress --->
Reduce stress after Completion --->
Enhance solidarity among participants/believers/the community
___ ___ practice magic to guard against uncontrolable hazards when sailing.
Creating an illusion of magical control when real control is not present.
sequences of words and actions invented prior to the current performance of the ritual in which they occur
Rites of Passage
a set of actions marking transitions between stages in life
withdrawl from a group and moving from one place to another
participant re-enters society with a new status, having
the in-between phase of a passage rite
a period during which the participant has left one place but has not yet entered the next
___, a basic part of rites of passage, involves a temporary suspension and reversal of social distinctions
a system, often religious, for imagining and understanding the universe
form of cosmology where nature is used as a model for society
symbol that represents unity (sports team logos)
In ___ societies, each descent group has an animal, plant, or geographical feature from which they claim descent.
custom that brings standouts back in line with community norms - a form of social control to reduce stratification
a part-time magico-religious practitioner
based on community rituals (i.e. harvest ceremonies, passage rites)
belief in multiple gods
According to Tyler:
Religion would ___ as science came to offer better explainations for things.
state religions with professional priesthoods
belif in a single, all-powerful deity
___ seek to rescue religion from absorption into the modern
___ assert an identity seperate from that of the larger religious group
cultural/religious mixes, that emerge when 2 or more cultural traditions come into contact
Hindu doctrine of nonviolence forbids killing animals
Western economic development experts often use the ___ as an example of how religion can stand in the way of development.
Religious freedom as a human right
Examples of religious freedom as a ___ ___:
- Tibetan Buddhist refugees
- Muslims in post 9/11 United States
seek to bring about positive change by reconstructing parts of religion threatened by outside forces
postcolonial, acculturative religious movements in Melanesia
rejecting the modern for a presumed earlier, purer, better way
advocating strict fidelity to a religion's presumed founding principle
Burials and painted figures on walls of European caves may represent ___ and early religious ___; suggests religious ___.
According to ___, religion evolved through stages.
No one knows for sure ... we can only speculate.
When did religion originate?
___ ___ and norms seem to excite the human mind and linger in memory.
___ ___ work because they are what people will transmit.
___ concepts are highly salient because they combine specific features that violate expectations
___ ___ (ie. ghosts, gods, spirits) are attention grabbing/ cognitively attractive, leading to ___ ___.
Symbolizes the worship of the One God - the god of Abraham
originally built by Adam and rebuilt by Abraham after the Great Flood
Sacred pilgrimage / quest for salvation
King of Isreal is referred to as the ___ of the 2 Holy Mosques
State of Ihram
pure frame of mind: Patience, Courtesy, and Respect
- Grooming, Arguing, and Sex are forbidden
State of Ihram
men are required to change into 2 pieces of cloth - symbolizes unity and puts the "soul on center stage."
Journey to Arafat
greatest day of the Hajj - where Adam met Eve after their separation
The Standing at Arafat
the realm of forgiveness
Ceremonial "Stoning of Satan" at the three pillars
shamanic, communal, olympian, monotheistic
4 types of religion
the 4 Vedas
core texts of Hinduism
- "unity in diversity"
- sacred sites range from a pile of stones to temples
- rich polytheism
- incorporates diversity of ways to practice the religion
- Started in North India
- NO accepted single text
: achieve Nirvana
___ 1st arose as a protest against social inequality of Hinduism
: 500 BCE
: exile and return
- Contemporary varieties from conservative to reform
Jerusalem / Islam
___ is the holiest city of Judaism, and also the 3rd holiest city of ___ and holy to many Christians as well.
The ___, or Western Wall, in Jerusalem is a pilgrimage site sacred to ___ people.
largest of the World Religions
- Youngest of the World Religions
- 2nd largest world religion
- local variations in ritual practices
Sunni / Shi'a
___ and ___ are the two major branches of Islam
Islam is based on the teachings of ___
Casablanca, Morocco / 25k
The largest mosque in the world is in ___, ___. It has space for ___ worshippers
Religious movement originating in Iran in the 19th century, spiritual unity, syncretism, offshoot Islam
groups who have a longstanding connection with their home territory that predates colonial or outside societies that prevail in their territory
Nunavut Province, Canada
Example of succesful reclaiming of indigenous people's territory
migration where one regularly moves back and forth between 2 or more countries
migration across counrty boundaries
migration within the country boundaries
We lose One language every x# of ___
The history of our species is one of ___ - it made us
Indigenous to Japan, deities of natural forces, veneration of Emperor, descendant of sun goddess
Chinese mystical philosophy, founded by Lao-tzu 6th century BC
Indian religion that emphasizes complete non-violence and asceticism, 6th century BC
Persian religion 6th century BC
Prophet: supreme god, Ahura Mazda
social moments that occur in times of change/crisis/unrest
new offshoot criticizing dominant religious ideology
maintain social order (Ireland/Quebec before the end of the 60s)
Religion as a stablizing force
... Religious Intolerance ...
blended religious ideas
Anthropological view on world religion
what the impact of a world religion in a new, local context
how local cultures reshape world religions
___ is considered a sect in Europe, but a religion in the USA
Typically text-based with many followers (crosses country borders)
___ religions are much more organized with strong institutions (social stratification)
Religious specialists: the more complex a society, the more ___ the specialist
A religion is NOT a religion without a ___
warming from trapped atmospheric gases
global warming plus changing sea levels, precipitation, storms, and ecosystem effects
a culture's set of environmental practices and perceptions
study of cultural adaptations to environments
the acculturative influence of Western expansion on local cultures worldwide
spread of one (dominant) culture at the expense of others
modified to fit the local culture
offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
describes our time and situation: time of questioning of established canons, identities, and standards
breakdown of established canons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries
style and movement in architecture after modernism
viewing identities that have developed historically as innate and unchanging