The Human Body

Card Set Information

Author:
jelliott
ID:
178714
Filename:
The Human Body
Updated:
2012-10-23 09:05:27
Tags:
EMT
Folders:

Description:
AAOS AEMT Ch 5
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jelliott on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The study of the structure of an organism and its parts.
    Anatomy
  2. A type of anatomy that describes body parts that are generally visible to the naked eye.
    Gross Anatomy
  3. A type of anatomy that describes the components of the body that are small, often visible only through a microscope.
    Microscopic Anatomy
  4. The study of the body functions of living organisms
    Physiology
  5. The study of how normal physiologic processes are affected by disease.
    Pathophysiology
  6. The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
    Topographic Anatomy
  7. The position of reference in which the pt. stands facing you, arms at the side,  the palms of the hands forward.
    The Anatomic Position
  8. An imaginary line where the body is cut into front and back parts.  (Plane)
    • Coronal Plane
    • Frontal Plane
  9. An imaginary line where the body is cut into top and bottom parts.  (Plane)
    • Transverse Plane
    • Axial Plane
  10. An imaginary line where the body is cut left and right parts.  (Plane)
    • Sagittal Plane
    • Lateral Plane
  11. An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus to the floor.
    • Midsagittal Plane
    • Midline
  12. Naval
    Umbilicus
  13. An imaginary line drawn vertically through the middle portion of the clavicle and parallel to the midline.
    Midclavicular Line
  14. An imaginary verticle line drawn through the middle of the axilla.
    Midaxillary Line
  15. Armpit
    Axilla
  16. Above a body part or nearer to the head.
    Superior
  17. Below a body part or nearer to the feet.
    Inferior
  18. Parts of the body that lie farther from the midline.
    • Lateral
    • Outer Structures
  19. Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline.
    • Medial
    • Inner Structures
  20. Closer to the trunk.
    Proximal
  21. Farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extermity.
    Distal
  22. Closer to or on the skin.
    Superficial
  23. Further inside the body and away from the skin.
    Deep
  24. The front surface of the body.
    • Anterior
    • Ventral
  25. The back surface of the body.
    • Posterior
    • Dorsal
  26. The palm of the hand.
    Palmer
  27. The bottom surface of the foot.
    Planter
  28. The pointed extremity of a conical structure.
    Apex
  29. The arc of movement of an extremity at a joint in a particular direction.
    Range of Motion
  30. The bending of a joint.
    Flexion
  31. The straightening of a joint.
    Extension
  32. Motion of a limb away from the midline.
    Abduction
  33. Motion of a limb toward the midline.
    Adduction
  34. When a body part is flexed to the maximum level or beyond the normal range of motion.
    Hyperflexion
  35. When a body part is extended to the maximum level or beyond the normal range of motion.
    Hyperextension
  36. Turning the palms upward (toward the sky).
    Supination
  37. Turning the palms downward (toward the ground).
    Pronation
  38. Something that appears of both sides of the midline.
    Bilateral
  39. Something that appears of only one side of the midline.
    Unilateral
  40. Lying flat, face down.
    Prone
  41. Lying face up.
    Supine
  42. The position in which the body is supine  the head lower than the feet.
    Tradelenburg's Position
  43. The position that has the head and torso supine and the lower extremities elevated 6"-12".
    • Shock Position
    • Modified Trendelenburg's Position
  44. The trunk  the head and limbs.
    Torso
  45. The position in which the pt. is sitting up  the knees bent.
    Fowler's Position
  46. The position in which the pt. is lying on his or her side and the bottom arm is extended straight  the head lying one it.  The top knee is bent, angling the pt. slightly toward the floor.
    Recovery Position
  47. The framework that gives the body its recogniable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protect vital organs.
    Skeleton
  48. Tough cords or bands of dense white fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
    Tendon
  49. A band of tough white fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone.
    Ligament
  50. A _____, or muscle pull, occurs when a muscle is stretched or torn.
    Strain
  51. A _____ occurs when the bone ends partially or temporarilly dislocate and the supporting ligaments are partially stretched or torn.
    Sprain
  52. The support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushoning between bones.
    Cartilage
  53. The small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication.
    Synovial Fluid  (Si-no-ve-al)
  54. Name the three types of bones.
    • Long Bones
    • Short Bones
    • Flat Bone
  55. The ends of a bone.
    Epiphysis (E-pif-a-seas)
  56. The shaft of a bone.
    Diaphysis (Die-a-physis)
  57. Growth Plate of the bone.
    Epiphyseal Plate (ep-a-phy-se-al)
  58. The double layer of connective tissue that lines the outer surface of a bone.
    Periosteum (Pear-e-a-sti-um)
  59. The layer that lines the inner surface of a bone.
    Endosteum (En-da-ste-um)
  60. The internal cavity that contains bone marrow.
    Medullary Cavity
  61. Yellow bone marrow produces _____ blood cells.
    White
  62. Red bon marrow produces _____blood cells.
    Red
  63. A type of bone that is mostly solid.
    Compact bone
  64. A type of bone that consists of a lacy network of bony rods called trabeculae.
    Cancellous Bone (Can-cell-us)
  65. Bony rods that form the lacy network in cancellous bones.
    Trabeculae (Tra-beck-u-la)
  66. The place where two bones come into contact.
    • Articulation
    • Joint
  67. A type of joint that has grown together forming a very stable connection.
    Symphysis
  68. The fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
    Joint Capsule
  69. The lining of a joint that secretes synovial fliud into the joint space.
    Synovial Membrane
  70. A joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending.
    Ball-and-socket joint
  71. Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate.
    Hinge Joint
  72. The part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.
    Axial Skeletom
  73. The bony rib cage.
    Thoracic Cage
  74. The Chest
    Thorax
  75. The portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.
    Appendicular Skeleton
  76. How many bones make up the human skeleton?
    206
  77. The structure at the top of the axial skeleton that houses the brain.
    The skull
  78. How many bones make up the skull?
    28
  79. How many bones make up the face?
    14
  80. How many bones make up the cranium?
    8
  81. The area between the temporal and the occipital regions.
    Parietal Region
  82. The lateral portions on each side of the cranium.
    Temporal Regions
  83. The most anterior portion of the cranium.
    Frontal Region
  84. The most posterior protion of the cranium.
    Occipital Region
  85. The small bone filled with air spaces that form part of the eye sockets and the nasal cavity.
    Ethmoid Bone
  86. A large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.
    Foramen Magnum
  87. Attachment points in the skull where the cranial bones join together.
    Sutures
  88. Where the paired parietal bones join together.
    Sagittal Suture
  89. Where the parietal bones join the frontal bone.
    Coronal Suture
  90. Where the parietal bones join the occipital bone.
    Lambdoid Suture
  91. The suture in children 6 and under where the two halves of the frontal bone join together.
    Metopic Suture
  92. The soft spots in the skull of a newborn and infant where the sutures of the skull have not yet grown together.
    Fontanelles
  93. A prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa to which the meninges are attached.
    Crista Galli
  94. A set of three tough membranes, the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater that enclose the entire brain and spinal cord.
    Meninges
  95. A horizontal bone perforated  numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity.
    Cribriform Plate
  96. A natural opening or passage, especially one though or into a bone.
    • Foramen
    • Foramina (Plural)
  97. Of, relating to, or contributing to the sense of smell.
    Olfactory
  98. The cranial nerve for smell.
    Olfactory Bulb
  99. The chamber inside the nose that lies between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth.
    Nasal Cavity
  100. The upper jawbones
    • Maxilla
    • Maxillae (Plural)
  101. The lower jawbone
    Mandible
  102. Check Bones
    Zygoma
  103. The vault-shaped muscular structure forming the soft palate between the mouth and the nasopharynx.
    Palatine Arch
  104. A thin scalelike bone at the anterior part of the medial wall of the orbit, articulating  the frontal and ethmoid bones and the maxilla and inferior nasal concha.
    Lacrimal Bone
  105. Of or relating to tears.
    Lacrimal
  106. A thin flat bone forming the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum.
    Vomer
  107. The eye socket
    Orbit
  108. A Fx of the floor of the orbit usually caused by a blow to the eye.
    Blowout Fx
  109. The seperation between the left and right nostrils.
    Nasal Septum.
  110. The sinuses, or hollowed sections of bone in the front of the head, which are lined  mucous and drain into the nasal cavity.
    Paranasal Sinuses
  111. An inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
    Sinusitis
  112. The joint where the mandible meets  temporal bones of the cranium just in front of each ear.
    Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
  113. A bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscle.
    Hyoid Bone
  114. What is the only bone in the body that does not articulate  another bone?
    Hyoid Bone
  115. The firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx.
    • Thyroid Cartilage
    • "Adam's Apple"
  116. A firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx.
    Cricoid Cartilage
  117. A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that makes up the larynx.
    Cricothyroid Membrane
  118. A sheet or band of tough fibrous connective tissue the covers, supports, and separates.
    Fascia
  119. The muscles on either side of the neck that allow movement of the head.
    Sternocleidomastoid Muscles
  120. The breastbone
    Sternum
  121. The spine or primary support structure of the body that houses the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves.
    • Spinal Column
    • Vertebral Column
  122. How many vertebrae make up the spinal column?
    33
  123. Name the five sections of the spinal column and how many vertebrae are in each.
    • Cervical - 7
    • Thoracic - 12
    • Lumbar - 5
    • Sacrum - 5
    • Coccyx - 4
  124. The first cervical vertebrae (C1), which provides support for the head.
    Atlas
  125. The second cervical vertebrae (C2), the point that allows the head to turn.
    Axis
  126. The location where the atlas articulates  the occipital condyles.
    Atlanto-occipital Joint
  127. The most promenant cervical vertebrae.
    • C7
    • Vertebrae Prominens
  128. The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lies in the neck.
    Cervical Spine
  129. The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical and the lumbar spines.
    Thoracic Spine
  130. The lower part of the back formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae.
    • Lumbar Spine
    • Dorsal Spine
  131. Name the 3 parts of the sternum.
    • Manubrium - Upper part
    • Body - Middle Part
    • Xiphoid Process - The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip
  132. The superior border of the sternum.
    Jugular Notch
  133. Behind the sternum.
    Retrosternal
  134. The proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
    Shoulder Girdle
  135. The shoudler blade
    Scapula
  136. Collar Bone
    Clavicle
  137. The tip of the shoulder and the site of attachment for both the clavicle and various shoulder muscles.
    Acromion Process (A-crom-eon)
  138. The part of the scapula that forms the socket in the ball-in-socket joint of the shoulder.
    Glenoid Fossa
  139. A small fluid-filled sac located between a tendon and a bone that cushions and protects the joint.
    Bursa
  140. One or more torn ligaments in the acromioclavicular (AC) joint, resulting in a separated shoulder.
    Acromioclavicular (AC) Separation (A-crom-e-o-cla-vic-u-lar)
  141. The supporting bone of the upper arm.
    Humerus
  142. The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
    Radius
  143. The proximal portion of the radius.
    Radial Head
  144. A small bony protrusion at the distal portion of the radius to which ligaments of the wrist are attached.
    Styloid Process
  145. The inner bone of the forearm, on the side opposite the thumb.
    Ulna
  146. The eight irregularly shaped bones of the wrist.
    The Carpals
  147. The bones that form the hand.
    The metacarpal bones
  148. The small bones of the digits of the fingers and toes.
    Phalanges
  149. The joint between the wrist and the metacarpal bones; the thumb joint.
    Carpometacarpal Joint
  150. Acute or chronic inflammation of one or more joints, usually accompanied by pain and stiffness.
    Arthritis
  151. The attachment point where the lower extremities attach to the body.  Contains a ring of bones where the sacrum is posterior and the coxal bones are on each side.
    Pelvis
  152. Name the three bones that are fused together to form the coxa.
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  153. The connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column.
    Sacroiliac Joint
  154. A hard bony and cartilaginous prominence found at the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen where the two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint  minimal motion.
    Pubic Symphysis
  155. The superior portion of the ilium.
    Iliac Crest
  156. The opening between the ischium and pubis that contains several important nerves and muscles.
    The Obturator Foramen (ob-tu-ra-tor)
  157. The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three components join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
    Acetabulum (Ass-e-ta-bu-lum)
  158. Thigh bone
    Femur
  159. Kneecap
    Patella
  160. Shin bone
    Tibia
  161. The long bone on the posterior surface of the lower leg.
    Fibula
  162. The distal end of the tibia, which forms the medial side of the ankle joint.
    Medial Malleolus (Ma-leo-lus)
  163. The distal end of the fibula, which forms the lateral wall of the ankle joint.
    Lateral Malleolus (Ma-leo-lus)
  164. Bone that articulates  the tibia and fibula to form the ankle.
    Talus
  165. Heel Bone
    Calcaneus
  166. Foot Bones
    Metatarsals
  167. Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint and is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will.
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Voluntary Muscle
    • Striated Muscle
  168. Muscle that consitutes the bulk of the GI tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.  Muscle over which a person has no conscious control.
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Involuntary Muscle
  169. Heart Muscle
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Myocardium
  170. Myo means...
    Muscle
  171. Cardio means...
    Heart
  172. All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing.
    Respiratory System
  173. Voice Box
    Larynx
  174. The passage that leads from the cavities of the nose and mouth to the larynx.
    Pharynx
  175. The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate.
    Nasopharynx
  176. The tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
    Oropharynx
  177. The portion of the pharynx just above the larynx.
    Laryngopharynx
  178. A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
    Esophagus
  179. The windpipe
    Trachea
  180. A thin, leaf shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.
    Epiglottis
  181. The space between the vocal cords where air enters the trachea.
    • Glottis
    • Glottic Opening
  182. A method of preventing regurgitation of an anesthetized pt. during endotracheal intubation by applying pressure to the cricoid cartilage.
    The Sellick Maneuver
  183. The point of entry for the bronchi, vessels, and nerves into each lung.
    Hilum
  184. Fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveoli ducts.
    Bronchioles
  185. The air sacs of the lungs in which gas exchange takes place.
    Alveoli
  186. A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs and helps keep the alveoli open.
    Surfactant
  187. The very thin membrane that lies between the alveolus and the capillary through which gas exchange occurs.
    Alveolocapillary Membrane
  188. The two primary organs of breathing.
    Lungs
  189. The serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity.
    Pleura
  190. The potential space between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura.
    • Pleural Space
    • Pleural Cavity
  191. The pleural membrane that lines the lungs.
    Viceral Pleura
  192. The pleural membrane that lines the thoracic cavity.
    Parietal Pleura
  193. A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity.
    Diaphragm
  194. The movement of gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
    Diffusion
  195. What % of room air contains O2?
    21%
  196. What % of the air that a person exhales contains O2?
    16%
  197. A measurement of the amount of O2 in the blood.
    Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PaO2)
  198. A measurement of the amount of CO2 in the blood.
    Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCO2)
  199. A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of less than 7.35, and caused by accumulation of acids in the body from a respiratory cause.
    Respiratory Acidosis
  200. A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of less than 7.35, and caused by accumulation of acids in the body from a metabolic cause.
    Metabolic Acidosis
  201. A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of greater than 7.45, and caused by accumulation of bases in the body from a respiratory cause.
    Respiratory Alkalosis
  202. A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of greater than 7.45, and caused by accumulation of bases in the body from a metabolic cause.
    Metabolic Alkalosis
  203. The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
    Potential of Hydrogen (pH)
  204. H+
    Hydrogen
  205. A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the O2 level in the blood.
    Hypoxic Drive
  206. In normal breathing, the brain control respirations by measuring the levels of _____ in the blood.
    Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  207. A substance that increases the concentration of H+ ions in a water solution.
    Acid
  208. A substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions in a water solution.
    Base
  209. What is the normal pH level in the body?
    7.35-7.45
  210. Blood that is too basic.
    Alkalotic
  211. Blood that is too acidic
    Acidotic
  212. A substance that can reversibly bind H+.
    Buffer
  213. Fast-acting defenses for acid-base change, providing almost immediate protection against the H+ ion concentration of extracellular fluid.
    Buffer System
  214. The lower half of the brain stem, controls automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and BP.
    The Medulla Oblongata
  215. A portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found.
    Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)
  216. A portion of the medulla oblongata that is responsible for modulating breathing during speech.
    Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)
  217. The superior portion of the pons, helps shut off the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations.
    • The Pneumotaxic Center
    • The Pontine Center
  218. The inferior portion of the pons, stimulates the DRG, resulting in longer, slower respirations.
    Apneustic Center
  219. A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
    Hering-Breuer Reflex
  220. The movement of air between the lungs and the environment.
    Ventilation
  221. The process of gas exchange at a cellular level.
    Respirations
  222. The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one relaxed breath.
    Tidal Volume
  223. What is the average tidal volume for an adult?
    500 mL
  224. The amount of air that can be inhaled  a normal inhalation.
    Inspiratory Reserve Volume
  225. The amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation.
    Expiratory Reserve Volume
  226. The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
    Residual Volume
  227. The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs  maximum inspiration and expiration.
    Vital Capacity
  228. Any portion of the airway that does contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange.
    Dead Space
  229. Normal respiratory rate for an adult.
    12-20
  230. Normal respiratory rate for children.
    15-30
  231. Normal respiratory rate for infants.
    25-50
  232. The use of muscles of the chest, back, and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest.
    Labored Breathing
  233. Slow, gasping respirations, sometimes seen in dying pt.
    Agonal Respirations
  234. The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, O2, nutrients, CO2, and cellular waste throughout the body.
    • Cirsulatory System
    • Cardiovascular System
  235. The portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs, the rest of the body.
    Systemic Circulation
  236. The flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins, also called the lesser circulation.
    Pulmonary Circulation
  237. A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
    Heart
  238. The space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels.
    Mediastinum
  239. The serous membranes that surround the heart.
    • Pericardium
    • Pericardial Sac
  240. The layer of the serous membrane that lies closely against the heart.  Lines the outside of the heart.
    • Epicardium
    • Visceral Pericardium
  241. A serous fluid that fills the space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium and helps to reduce friction.
    Pericardial Fluid
  242. The thin membrane lining the inside of the heart.
    Endocardium
  243. A membrane that separates the left and right atria.
    Interatrial Septum
  244. A thick wall that separates the left and right ventricles.
    Interventricular Septum
  245. One of the two upper chambers of the heart.
    Atrium
  246. One of the two lower chambers of the heart.
    Ventricle
  247. Veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart.
    Coronary Sinuses
  248. The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
    Pulmonary Veins
  249. A depression between the left and right atria that indicates where the foramen ovale had been located in the fetus.
    Fossa Ovalis
  250. An opening between the two atria that is present in the fetus but closes shortly  birth.
    Foraman Ovale
  251. The valves that separate the upper (atrium) and lower (ventricle) parts of the heart.
    Atrioventricular Valves
  252. The heart valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
    Tricuspid Valve
  253. The valve in the heart that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle.
    • Mirtal Valve
    • Bicuspid Valve
  254. The flaps the comprise the heart valves.
    Cusps
  255. Specialized muscles that attach the ventricles to the cusps of the valves by muscular strands called chordae tendineae.
    Papillary Muscles
  256. This bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.
    Chordae Tenineae
  257. The valves that separate the ventricles from the arteries into which they pump.
    Semilunar Valves
  258. The semilunar valve that regulates blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
    Pulmonic Valve
  259. The semilunar valve that regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.
    Aortic Valve
  260. One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
    Superior Vena Cava
  261. One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs to the heart.
    Inferior Vena Cava
  262. The principle artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
    Aorta
  263. The heart sound caused by the sudden closer of the tricuspid and mitral (bicuspid) valves.
    • S1
    • "lub"
  264. The heart sound caused by closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves.
    • S2
    • "DUB"
  265. A soft low pitched heart sound that occurs about one third of the way through diastole; associated  abnormally increased filling pressures in the atria secondary to heart failure.
    • S3
    • "da"
  266. A medium pitched heart sound that occurs immediately  S1 and represents either decreased stretching of the left ventricle or increased pressure in the atria.
    • S4
    • "bla"
  267. An abnormal heart sound, heard as a "whooshing like" sound indicating turbulent blood flow within the heart.
    Murmur
  268. An abnormal "whooshing like" sound indicating turbulant blood flow within a blood vessel.
    Bruits
  269. Abnormal heart sounds that indicate abnormal cardiac valve function.
    • Clicks
    • Snaps
  270. A group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that initiate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissue.
    Cardiac Conduction System
  271. The normal site of origin of eletrical impulses; the hearts natural pacemaker.
    Sinoatrial (SA) Node
  272. The site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction.
    Atrioventricular (AV) Node
  273. Related to the control of the heart's rate of contraction.
    Chronotropic State
  274. Related to the control of the heart's electrical conduction rate.
    Dromotropic State
  275. Related to the strenght of the heart's contraction.
    Inotropic State
  276. Sensors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis.
    Baroreceptors
  277. Sensors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood to help maintain homeostasis.
    Chemoreceptors
  278. The number of heart beats during a specific time.
    Heart Rate
  279. The strength of heart muscle contractions.
    Contractility
  280. _____ stimulation slows the heart rate, primarily affecting the AV node.
    Parasympathetic
  281. _____ stimulation causes alpha and beta effects.
    Sympathetic
  282. _____ receptors are located in the brain and blood vessels and results in vasoconstriction.
    Alpha
  283. _____ receptors are located in the heart and lungs and results in inotropic, dromotropic, chronotropic states.
    Beta
  284. The repetitive pumping process that begins  the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just prior to the beginning of the next contraction.
    Cardiac Cycle
  285. The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
    Systole
  286. The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
    Diastole
  287. The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
    Pulse Pressure
  288. mm Hg
    Millimeters of Mercury
  289. The pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood.
    Afterload
  290. The volume of blood pumped forward  each ventricular contraction.
    Stroke Volume
  291. The amount of air moved in and out of the lung in one minute.
    Minute Volume
  292. What is the average minute volume for an adult?
    5 L
  293. The amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in one minute.
    Cardia Output
  294. What is the average cardiac output for an adult/
    5 L
  295. How do you determine pulse pressure?
    Pulse Pressure = Systolic Pressure - Diastolic Pressure
  296. How do you determine cardiac output?
    Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
  297. How do you determine minute volume?
    Minute Volume = Tidal Volume x Respiratory Rate
  298. The theroy that the force of the heart beat is determined primarily by the length of the fibers constituting it muscular wall.  An increase in diastolic filling equals an increase in the force of the heartbeat.
    Sterling's Law
  299. The portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole.
    Ejection Fraction
  300. The volume of blood returned to the heart.
    Preload
  301. The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
    Arteries
  302. The blood vessels that transport blood back to the heart.
    Veins
  303. The smallest branches of arteries.
    Arterioles
  304. The smallest branches of veins.
    Venules
  305. The tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit gas exhange.
    Capillaries
  306. Name the three layers of a blood vessel.
    • Tunica Intima - Inner
    • Tunica Media - Middle
    • Tunica Adventitia - Outer
  307. Arteries that arise from the aorta shortly  it leaves the left ventricle and supply the heart  O2 and nutrients.
    Coronary Arteries
  308. The point of division at which the common carotid artery branches at the angle of the mandible into the internal and external carotid arteries.
    Carotid Bifurcation
  309. The major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.
    Caroid Artery
  310. The proximal part of the main artery of the arm, which supplies the brain, neck, anterior chest wall, and shoulder.
    Subclavian Artery
  311. The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
    Brachial Artery
  312. The princple artery of the thigh.
    Femoral Artery
  313. A continuation of the femoral artery at the knee.
    Popliteal Artery
  314. The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
    Dorsalis Pedis Artery
  315. The artery just behind the medial malleolus, supplies blood to the foot.
    Posterior Tibial Artery
  316. The two main veins that drain the head and neck.
    Jugular Veins
  317. Spaces between the membranes surrounding the brain that are the primary means of venous drainage from the brain.
    Venous Sinuses
  318. Proximal of the main vein of the arm, it unites  the internal jugular vein.
    Subclavian Vein
  319. Name the two major veins of the arm.
    • Basilic Vein
    • Cephalic Vein
  320. Name the vein that is formed from the combination of the basilic and cephalic veins and drains into the subclavian vein.
    Axillary Vein
  321. A specialized part of the venous system that drains blood from the stomach, intestines, and spleen.
    Hepatic Portal System
  322. The veins into which blood empties  liver cells in the sinusoids of the liver extract netrients, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs.
    Hepatic Veins
  323. The largest vein in the body, it drains into the leg, thigh, and dorsum of the foot.
    Saphenous Vein
  324. A continuation of the saphenous vein that drains into the iliac vein.
    Femoral Vein
  325. The vein that forms when the anterior and posterior tibial veins unite at the knee.
    Popliteal Vein
  326. The fluid tissue that is pumped by the heart through the arteries, veins, and capillaries and consist of plasma nd formed elements or cells, such as RBC, WBC and platelets.
    Blood
  327. What is the average about of blood in the body?
    5 L
  328. A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of exceretion.
    Plasma
  329. Cells that carry O2 to the body's tissues.
    • Red Blood Cells (RBC)
    • Erythrocytes
  330. A iron-containing pigment found in RBC, carries 97% of O2.
    Hemoglobin
  331. The process by which RBC are made.
    Erythropoiesis
  332. A waste product of RBC destruction that undergoes further metabolism in the liver.
    Billiruben
  333. Substances on the surface of RBC that are recognized by the immune system.
    Antigens
  334. Proteins within the plasma that react  antigens.
    Antibodies
  335. Blood cells that have a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection.
    • White Blood Cells (WBC)
    • Leukocytes
  336. A process whereby WBC leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most.
    Diapedesis

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview