Chapter 8 & 9: Research Methods

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catorresdiaz
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Chapter 8 & 9: Research Methods
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2012-10-21 17:45:16
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Chapter 8 & 9: Research Methods
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  1. z test
    parametric inferential statistical test of the null hypothesis for a single sample wehre the population variance is known.
  2. sampling distribution
    distribution of sample means based on random samples of a fixed size from a population.
  3. standard error of the mean
    standard deviation of the sampling distribution
  4. central limit theorem
    states that ofr any population with a mean µ and a standard deviation σ, the distribution of sample means for sample size N will have a mean of µ, a standard deviation of σ/√N, and will approach a normal distribution as N approaches infinity.
  5. critical value
    value of a test statistic that marks the edge of the region of rejection in a sampling distribution, where values equal to it or beyond it fall in the region of rejection.
  6. region of rejection
    are of a sampling distribution that lies beyond the test statistic's critical value; when a score falls within this region, His rejected.
  7. statistical power
    probability of correctly rejecting a false H0.
  8. confidence interval
    an interval of a certain width that we feel confident will contain µ.
  9. t test
    a parametric inferential statistical test of the null hypothesis for a single sample where the population variance is not known.
  10. student's t distribution
    a set of distributions that, although symmetrical and bell-shaped, are not normally distributed.
  11. degrees of freedom (df)
    the number of scores in a sample that are free to vary.
  12. estimated standard error of the mean
    an estimate of the standard deviation of the sampling distribution.
  13. chi-square (x2) goodness-of-fit test
    nonparametric inferential procedure that determines how well an observed frequency distribution fits an expected distribution.
  14. observed frequency
    the frequency with which participants fall into a category.
  15. expected frequency
    the frequency expected in a category if the sample data represent the population.
  16. a __ is a distribution of sample means based on rndom samples of a fixed size from a population
    sampling distribution
  17. the __ is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution.
    standard error of the mean
  18. the set of distributions that, although symmetrical and bell-shaped, are not normally distributed is called the ___.
    student's t distribution
  19. the ___ is a parametric statistical test of the null hypothesis for a single sample where the population variance is not known.
    t test
  20. ___ and ___ frequencies are used in the calculation of the x2 statistic.
    observed; expected
  21. inferential statistics allow us to infer something about the __ based on the ___.
    population; sample
  22. the sampling distribution is a distribution of:
    sample means
  23. a one-tailed z test is to ____ and a two-tailed z test is to ___.
    ±1.645; ±1.96
  24. which of the following is an assumption of the t test?
    the sample size is typically less than 30.
  25. parametric is to nonparametric as ____ is to ____.
    t test; x2 test
  26. which of the following is an assumption of x2 tests?
    the sample should be randomly selected.
  27. between-subjects design
    an experiment in which different subjects are assigned to each group.
  28. posttest-only control group design
    an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured after the manipulation of the independent variable.
  29. pretest/posttest control group design
    an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured both before and after manipulation of the independent variable.
  30. confound
    an uncontrolled extraneous variable or flaw in an experiment.
  31. internal validity
    the extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the indpendent variable rather than to some confounding variable.
  32. history effect
    a threat to internal validity in whch an outside event that is not a part of the manipulation of the experiment could be responsible for the results.
  33. maturation effect
    a threat to internal validity in which naturally ourring changes within the subjects could be responsible for the observed results.
  34. testing effect
    threat to internal validity in which repeated testing leads to better or worse scores.
  35. regression to the mean
    a threat to internal validity in which extreme scores, upon retesting, tend to be less extreme, moving toward the mean.
  36. instrumentation effect
    a threat to internal validity in which changes in the dependent variable may be due to changes in the measuring device.
  37. mortality (attrition)
    threat to internal validity in which differential dropout rates may be observed in the experimental and control groups, leading to inequality between the groups.
  38. diffusion of treatment
    When a treatment given in a study group is shared with members of a control group.
  39. experimenter effects
    • the results of the study are biased by the experimenter's expectations.
    • influence of the experimenter's behavior, personality traits, or expectancies on the results of his or her own research.
  40. single-blind experiment
    experimental procedure in which either the subjects or the experimenters are blind to the manipulation being made.
  41. double-blind experiment
    experimental procedure in which neither the experimenter nor the subject knows the condition to which each subject has been assigned; both parties are blind to the manipulation.
  42. subject effect
    changes in the behaviors or responses of the participants may be due to information received from others participating in the experiment.
  43. placebo group
    group of subjects who believe they are receiving treatment but in reality are not.
  44. placebo
    simulated or otherwise medically ineffectual treatment for a disease or other medical condition intended to deceive the recipient.
  45. floor effect
    limitation of the measuring instrument that decreases its capability todifferentiate between scores at the bottom of the scale.
  46. ceiling effect
    limitation of the measuring instrument that decreases its capability todifferentiate between scores at the top of the scale.
  47. external validity
    the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized.
  48. college sophomore problem
    an external validity problem that results from using mainy college sophomores as subjects in research studies.
  49. exact replication
    repeating a study using teh same means of manipulating and measuring the variables as in the original study.
  50. conceptual replication
    study based on another study that uses different methods, a different manipulation, or a different measure.
  51. systematic replication
    study that varies from an original study in one systematic way--for example, by using a different number or type of subjects, a different setting, or more levels of the independent variable.
  52. correlated-groups design
    an experimental design in which the subjects in the experimental and control groups are related in some way.
  53. within-subjects design
    type of correlated-groups design in which the same subjects are used in each condition.
  54. order effects
    problem for within-subjects designs in which the ordre ofthe conditions has an effect on teh dependent variable.
  55. counterbalancing
    mechanism for controlling order effects either by including all orders of treatment presentation or by randomly determining the order for each subject.
  56. latin square
    counterbalancing technique to control for order effects without using all possible orders.
  57. matched-subjects design
    a type of correlated-groups design in which subjects are matched between conditions on variable(s) that the researcher believes is (are) relevant to the study.
  58. experiment in which different subjects are assigned to each group is a ___.
    between-subjects design
  59. when we use ___, we randomly determine who serves in each group in an experiment.
    random assignment
  60. when the dependent variable is measured both before and after manipulation of the independent variable, we are using a ___ design.
    pretest-posttest control group design
  61. ___ is the extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable, rather than to some confounding variable.
    internal validity
  62. a(n) ___ is a threat to internal validity where the possibility of naturally occurrng changes within the subjects is responsible for the observed results.
    maturation effect
  63. if there is a problem with the measuring device, then there may be a(n) ___ effect.
    instrumentation
  64. if subjects talk to each other about an experiment, then there may be ____.
    diffusion of treatment
  65. when neither the experimenter nor the subjects know the condition to which each subject has been assigned, a ___ experiment is being used.
    double-blind
  66. when the measuring device is limited in such a way that scores at the top of the scale cannot be differentiated, there is a ___ effect.
    ceiling
  67. the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized is called ___.
    external validity
  68. when a study is based on another study but uses different methods, a different manipulation, or a different measure, we are conducting a ___ replication.
    conceptual
  69. if the order of conditions affects the results in a within-subjects design, there are ____.
    order effects
  70. manipulate is to measure as __ is to ___.
    independent variable; dependent variable
  71. in an experimental study of the effects of stress on appetite, stress is the:
    independent variable
  72. in an exprimental study of the effects of stress on appetite, subjects are randomly assigned to either the no-stress group or the stress group. these groups represent the __ and the __, respectively.
    control group; experimental group
  73. within-subjects design is to between-subjects design as __ is to ___.
    using the same subjects in each group; using different subjects in each group.
  74. the extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable, rather than to some confounding variable refers to:
    internal validity
  75. Joann conducted an experiment to test the effectiveness of an anti-anxiety program. the experiment took place over a 1-month time period. subjects in the control group and the experimental group (those who participated in the anti-anxiety program) recorded their anxiety levels several times each day. Joann was unaware that midterm exams also happened to take place during the 1-month time period of ther experiment Joann's experiment is now confounded by:
    history effect
  76. Joe scored very low on the SAT the first time he took it. based on the confound of __, if Joe were to retake the SAT, his score should __.
    regression to the mean; increase
  77. when the confound of mortality occurs:
    subjects are lost differentially from the experimental and control groups.
  78. controlling subject effects is to controlling both subject and experimenter effects as __ is to __.
    single-blind experiment; double-blind experiment.
  79. if you wer to use a bathroom scale to weigh mice in a experimental setting, your experiment would most likely suffer from a:
    floor effect.
  80. if we were to conduct a replication in which weincreased the number of levels of the independent variable, we would be using a(n) ___ replication.
    systematic
  81. most psychology experiments suffer from the __ problem because of the type of subjects used.
    college sophomore problem

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