Card Set Information
what are the different types of non small cell lung cancer?
sqaumous cell lung carcinoma
large cell carcinoma
which are more common, small or non small cell lung cancer?
non small cell lung cancer
what are the respiratory causes of clubbing?
: bronchial cancer, mesothelioma, ,large cell lung cancer
interstitial lung disease
supparative lung disease
: abscess, empyema, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis
what are the cardiac causes of clubbing?
congenital cyanotic heart disease
subacute bacterial endocarditis
any disease featuring chronic hypoxia
what are the GI & HPB causes of clubbing?
: esp Crohns
: esp PBC
Malabsorption - eg coeliac
what is cirrhosis?
irreversible liver damage
loss of normal hepatic architecture
what are the 3 most common causes of cirrhosis?
chronic alcohol abuse
name 4 risk factors for lung cancer
radioation - radon gas
name 4 main symptoms of lung cancer
give 6 general signs found in a pt with lung cancer
HPOA (hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy) wrist pain due to periostis of long bones
where do lung cancers metastasise to? and what signs and symptoms does this make?
: confusion, fits, focal CNS signs, cerebellar syndrome
: pain, anaemia, increased calcium
what are the chest signs of lung cancers? 4 options
what are the local complications of lung cancer?
: recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, phrenic nerve palsy
: SVC obstruction causing oedema
: pancoast's tumour at apex of lung, can grow into sympathetic ganglion, brachiocephalic vein, subclav artery
: rib erosion
: pericarditis (central chest pain to back, better when lean forward, pericardial friction rub, saddle ST elevation, AF
what are the metastatic complications of lung cancer?
: bone pain, anaemia, inc calcium
: focal neurology or general confusion, fits..
What are the endocrine complications of lung cancer?
ectopic hormone secretion
causing SIADH (high ADH, low Na)
: small cell lung cancer secrete ACTH
: as PTH released by SQUAMOUS cell tumours
what are the non metastatic neuro complications?
: autoimmune disorder affecting VG calcium channels on presynaptic memb of NMJ so no ACh release and so no muscle contraction, muscle weakness
other paraneoplastic syndromes of lung cancer
HPOA, wrist pain
what are the different investigations used to diagnose lung cancer?
: sputum and pleural fluid at least 20ml
: peripheral, circular opacity; hilar enlargement, consolidation, collapse, pleural effusion, bony secondaries
FNA OR BIOPSY
: superficial LN and periph lesions
: histology and assess if operable
: help staging
Radionuclide bone scan if suspect mets
Lung function tests
what is the treatment for non small cell tumours if a) low stage, b) poor resp reserve, c) advanced disease
a) low stage
: excision for peripheral tumours with no mets
b) if resp reserve poor
: curative radiotherapy
: chemo and radio
what is the treatment for small cell tumours and why is it different?
small cell tumuors are disseminated at presentation
: chemo and or radio
what are the different options for palliative treatment of lung cancer?
: if bronchial or SVC obstruction, haemoptysis, bone pain, cerebral mets
: SVC stent + radiotherapy + dexamethasone
: tracheal stenting, cryotherapy, laser, brachytherapy
symptomatic pleural effusion
: pleural drainage or pleurodesis
: cough linctus (codeine)
Other than small cell and non small cell lung tumours, name 3 others:
: most are carcinoid
: tumour of mesothelial cells in the pleura related to asbestos exposure. may have v.long latent period between exposure and tumour development