ch:36 Communicable Diseases
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Aids (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)*
- loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, skin rashes, diarrhea, fatigue, poor resistance to infections, swollen lymph nodes. Later- cough, fever, shortness of breath, dyspnea, purple blotches on the skin.
- Transmission: Direct contact : sexual, anal, or vaginal intercourse; sharing IV drug needles; infected mother to child(childbirth);blood to blood(from cuts, scrapes, punctures of skin).
- indirect contact: blood transfusions.
Chickenpox* (deaths only reportable)(varicella zoster virus)
Transmission: Direct or indirect contact, droplet, or airborne secretion of infected person.
Symptoms: crops of pruritic vascular eruptions on the skin, slight fever and headache, malaise.
Common Cold (upper respiratory infection-URI)
Transmission: direct or indirect contact with infected person.
Symptons: Slight sore throat, watery eyes, runny nose, sneezing, chills, malaise, low-grade fever.
Conjunctivitis (pink eye)
Transmission: Direct or indirect contact with discharge from eyes or upper respiratory tract of infected person.
Symptons: Redness of eyes, itching, burningof eyes, matted eyelashes.
Head lice (pediculosis)
Transmission: Direct contact with infested person; indirect contact is rare.
Symptoms: Itching of scalp; presence of small light-grey lice and nits (eggs) at the base of hairs.
Haemopbilus influenzae type b
Hib (H-flu)* (invasive disease reportable)
Transmission: Direct and indirect contact and droplet infection from respiratory tract.
Symptoms: URI symptoms, fever, aches, sleepiness, no appetite; as disease progresses, child is irritable and fussy.
MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
Transmission: Direct contact or indirect contact. Skin to skin contact or shared items, such as towels, razrs, and bandages.
Symptoms: Skin infections that may look like pimples or boils and can be read, swollen, painful, and full of pus.
Transmission: Direct or indirect contact by droplets from the nose or throat of an infected person, usually when they cugh or sneeze.
Symptoms: Fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite, swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides.
Pertussis* (whooping couch; Bordetella pertussis)
Transmission: Direct contact with discharges from respiratory mucous membranes of infected persons.
Symptoms: Sneezing, runny nose, low grade fever, and mild cough. Within two weeks, the cough becomes more severe and its characterized by episodes of many rapid coughs followed by a crowning or high pitched whoop. Thick, clear mucus may be discharged.
Pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis)
Transmission: Direct transfer of eggs from anus to mouth; indirect contact with eggs in clothing, bedding.
Symptoms: Anal itching, insomnia, irritability.
Transmission: Direct and indirect contact.
Symptoms: High Fever, shaking, chills, productive cough.
Rubella* (German measles)
Transmission: Direct contact by respiratory droplets from an infected person coughing and sneezing.
Symptoms: Rash and fever for 2-3 days.
Transmission: Direct contact or indirect contact with infested clothing/bedding
Symptoms: intense itching of small, raised areas of skin that contain fluid or tiny burrows under the skin, resembling a line- may be anywhere in the body.
Transmission: Direct contact
Symptoms: Fever, red and sore throat, pus spots on back of throat, tender and swollen glands of neck.
Scarlet fever (scarlatina)(streptococcal)
Transmission: direct or indirect contact.
Symptoms: Fever, red and sore throat, pus spots on back of throat, tender and swollen glands of neck, strawberry tongue, rash on skin and inside mouth, high fever, nausea, and vomiting.
VRE (Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci)
Transmission: Direct and indirect contact. Person to person contact or contact with contaminated surfaces.
Symptoms: For a skin infection, area may be red and tender, For a urinary tract infection(UTI), possible back pain; a burning sensation when urinating or a need to urinate more often; possible diarrhea, fever, chills; weakness or sick feeling.
Hepatitis A* (acute)
Transmission: Direct contract or by fecal-contaminated food or water.
Symptoms: Slow onset, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, joint pain, dark urine, clay-colored stool.
Hepatitis B* (acute, chronic, and perinatal)
Transmission: contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids primarily though birth to an infected mother, secual contact with an infected person, sharing of contaminated needles, syringes, other injection drug equipment, or needle sticks or other sharp instrument injuries.
Symptoms: Slow onset fever malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, joint pain, dark urine, clay-colored stool. but onset is rapid and acute.
Hepatitis C* (acute and chronic; formerly non-A, non-B, or NANB)
Transmission: Contact with blood of an infected person primarily though sharing of contaminated needles, syringes, or other injection drug equipment. Less commonly through sexual contact with an infected person birth to an infected mother, needle stick or other sharp injuries.
Symptoms: Slow onset fever malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, joint pain, dark urine, clay-colored stool. But onset is rapid and acute.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters)
Transmission: Direct contact with infected person.
Symptoms: Painful blisters on lips, which turn pustular and then form crusted scabs; oral lesions are small ulcerated areas.
H1N1 (Swine Flu)* (associated pediatric mortality)
Transmission: Direct and indirect contact by airborne secretions.
Symptoms: Fecer, cough, sore throat, runny or stufy nose, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea. Can range from an upper respiratory infection to an acute, life-threatening illness.
Transmisson: Direct contact with draining sores.
Symptoms: Blister-like lesions (later becoming crusted), itching.
Influenza * (associated pediatric mortality)
Transmission: Direct or indirect contact and by airborne secretions.
Symptoms: sudden onset of fever , chills, headache sore muscles, malaise (commonly, runny nose, sore throat, and cough)
Measles * (rubeola)
Transmission: Direct contact by respiratory droplets from an infected person sneezing or coughing.
Symptoms: Blotchy rash, fever, cough, runny nose, red watery eyes, maliase, tiny white spots with bluish-white centers found inside the mouth. (Koplik's spots)
Transmission: Direct contact, fecal-oral route, and respiratory secretions.
Symptoms: Symptoms in adults may differ from those in children. common in infants: fever, irritability, poor eating, hard to awaken. common in older children and adults: high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to bright light, sleepiness or trouble waking up, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite.
Meningitis* (bactererial) Haemopbilius and Meningococcal
Transmission: Direct contact and droplet infection from respiratory tract.
Symptoms: Sudden onset of fever, intense headache, nausea, vomiting; sometimes petechial rash, irritability, sluggishness (possible seizures or coma)
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