airpollution

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Author:
kamato
ID:
178839
Filename:
airpollution
Updated:
2012-12-09 22:40:42
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ph681
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ph681 final
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  1. Composition of Pure Air (by weight)
    Nitrogen
    Oxygen
    Argon
    Carbon Dioxide
    Variety of other ......
    • Nitrogen 76%
    • Oxygen 23%
    • Argon 1%
    • Carbon Dioxide.03%
    • Variety of other gases in less amounts and water vapor
  2. 4 types of air pollution
    • primary
    • secondary
    • gasoues
    • particulate
  3. Primary Air Pollutants

    ex.
    • Primary: directly emitted into the atmosphere 
    • ex. carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide
  4. Secondary Air Polutants
    • formed in the atmosphere
    • Ex. (ozone)
  5. Gaseous air pollution
    (nitrogen dioxide)
  6. Particulate Air pollution
    Particulate : carbonaceous and non carbonaceous (mineral)
  7. Natural Sources of Air Pollution
    (5)
    • 1) windstorms that spread dust clouds
    • 2) salt evaporation along the coasts
    • 3) production of materials from biological origins (mold spores, pollen and organic material from plants and animals) 
    • 4) forest fires
    • 5) Volanic eruptions (oxides of sulfur and moisture + sunlight=sulfuric acid and sulfates.
  8. Anthropogenic sources of air pollution
    (2 general)
    • 1) stationary sources
    • 2) mobile sources
  9. stationary sources (5)
    e
    f
    o
    c
    • 1) electric generating plants
    • 2) factories and manufacturing complexes
    • 3) oil refineries
    • 4) chemical plants
    • 5) incinerators
  10. mobile sources (3)
    o
    o
    n
    • 1) on-road vechicles
    • 2) off-road vechicles (farm vehicles)
    • 3) non-road vechicles (planes)
  11. Effects of air pollution (6) 
    hh
    v
    a
    e
    d
    v
    • 1) human health (respitory, cardio-vascular, eyes, adverse pregnancy outcomes
    • 2) vegetation
    • 3) animals
    • 4) ecosystem
    • 5) damage to materials
    • 6) visibility
  12. Environmental Pathways (6)
    s
    e
    c
    e
    d
    he:
    • 1) source-quality and quantity give idea of potential harms
    • 2) emissions: depend on which type of fuel and how it is burned 
    • 3) concentration (not only on the emissions but also on the atmospheric conditions (or ventilation
    • conditions inside a building if the concern is indoor pollution)
    • 4) exposure (how many people breathe what concentration for how long)
    • 5) dose-much pollutant is actually deposited in the body and depends not only on exposure but also on factors such as the rate of breathing and the size of particles
    • 6) health effects: depend on dose, age, sex, smoker, and
    • on the existence of other diseases etc.
  13. Air Pollution and Epidemilogy
    effects range from... to....
    Effects range from subtle biochemical and physiological changes to severe illness and death
  14. Approaches to studying air polllution effects:
    • 1) toxicological studies
    • 2) time series data, daily data
    • 3) cohort studies: American Cancer Study, Harvard Six city study, adventist smog and health study
    • 4) panel studies
  15. Health Effects: Acute Effects: (11)
    m
    r
    c
    e
    p
    u
    d
    w
    s
    a
    p
    • 1) daily mortality
    • 2) respiratory hospital admissions
    • 3) cardiovascular hospital admissions
    • 4) ER visits for respirtory and cardiac problems
    • 5) primary care visits for " " 
    • 6) use of resp and card medications
    • 7) days of restricted activities
    • 8) work abseentism
    • 9) school days missed
    • 10) acute symptoms (wheezing, coughing, phlegm productions)
    • 11) physiological changes (i.e. lung function)
  16. Chronic Health Effects (5)

    c
    c
    l
    c
    • 1) mortality (infants and adults) from chronic respitory-cardiac disease
    • 2) chronic respitory disease incidence and prevalence (asthma, COPD, chronic pathological changes)
    • 3) chronic changes in physiologic functions
    • 4) lung cancer
    • 5) cardio vascular disease
  17. Other Health Effects: (4)
    • 1) Pregnancy complications
    • 2) low-birth weight
    • 3) preterm delivery
    • 4) reduced fertility
  18. health effects ladder (9)
    s
    i
    s
    m
    r
    v
    e
    h
    p
    • 1) sub-clinical (subtle effects)
    • 2) impaired pulmonary functions
    • 3) symptoms
    • 4) medication use
    • 5) restricted activity
    • 6) visits to doctors
    • 7) ER room
    • 8) hospital admiss
    • 9) premature mortality
  19. Most susceptible (3)
    • 1) children (higher breathing rates, developing lung tissues, higher exposures
    • 2) elderly (weak immunities)
    • 3) patients of respitory and cardiac diseases
  20. Biological mechanisms (2)
    • oxidative stress
    • inflammation
  21. Particulate matter
    from...
    causes...
    • particulate matter from combustion
    • causes imparied lung function, damage to lung tissue, cancer, death, ambient visibility
  22. sulfur dioxide
    from the ....and causes...
    from combustion of fuels containing sulfur, metal smelting causes respitory illness, aggravation of asthma, cardiovascular illness and acid rain.
  23. nitrogen dioxide
    from...
    causes...
    • from high temperature combustion
    • causes acute respitory illness, acid rain
  24. ozone...
    in the...
    it is a _________ pollutant...
    related to...
    causes: (3)
    • in the lower atmosphere is bad
    • it is a secondary pollutant
    • related to emissions for vechicles
    • causes impaired lung functions, lung inflammation, and crop damage
  25. lead
    from...
    causes...
    • from gasoline, smelters and batteries
    • causes anemia, kidney disease, mental retardation, highblood pressure
  26. carbon monoxide
    from
    reduces...
    • from combustion
    • reduces oxygen delivery to organs and tissues
  27. particulate matter
    1.most..
    2. they are..
    3. either..
    4. sizes are
    5. are regulated to..
    6. is a .... of other.. 
    • 1) the most important for health
    • 2) solids or liquids suspended in the air
    • 3) either primary or secondary
    • 4) sizes-1 nanometer to 100 microns, but mostly 20 microns
    • 5) sizes are regulated-10-2.5 microns (abrasive to tissue)
    • 6) is a carrier of other pollutants (mineral and PAH)
  28. comparison of urban air quality in terms of fine particles (microorganisms/m3)
    1) asian mega-cities 
    2) dirtiest us cities
    3) honolulu
    4) indian standard
    5) us standard
    • asian megacities(bejing, delhi, dhaka, bangkok) -200 
    •  2) dirtiest us cities  30-50
    • 3) honolulu 15
    • 4) indian standard 60
    • 5) us standard 50
  29. US EPA Standards
    • rons, but mostly 20 microns
    • 5) sizes are regulated-10-2.5 microns (abrasive to tissue)
    • 6) is a carrier of other pollutants (mineral and PAH)
  30. Indoor Airpollution
    more than _____ ppl depend on ...
    ______ are ... 
    _________  are..
    ___ matter levels are... 
    • more than 3 billion people continue to depend on wood, coal, etc, for their cooking needs
    • stoves are inefficient and many dont have chimneys
    • kitchens are small, ventilation...
    • particulate matter-typical levels are 1000mg/m3
  31. Damage to human health
    1) infections (4 kinds)
    2) population
    3) pre-mature deaths/ year
    4) productivitvy?
    5) indoor air?
    • 1. (acute respiratory infections, bronchitis, cancer, asthma
    • 2. affects the kids, elderly, sick and poor
    • 3. premature deaths to to outdoor air pollution: 799,000 world, 537,000 asia
    • 4. 1 billion work days of lost or reduced productivity
    • 5. indoor air deaths: world- 1.6 million deaths, india-450,000 asia - 1.06 million
  32. Costs to society
    1. india
    2. indonesia
    3. thailand
    4. Pakistan
    5. Manila
    • India-$517 million
    • Indonesia $ 2.16 billion (2% gpd)
    • Thailand- 1.6 billion (2% gdp)
    • Pakistand- $1.71 billion (3.3% gpd)
    • Manila $335-410 million (0.8-1% gpd) air and water
  33. DALY
    is an...
    stands for..
    combines...
    impact measured as....
    • is an index of burden of disease
    • Disability adjusted life years
    • combines morbidity and mortality
    • impact measured as time lost in ones life
    • adjusts for age, sex, etc
  34. steps to reduce emissions of harmful air pollution
    (3)
    • 1) technological controls
    • 2) energy conservation
    • 3) demand side management
  35. technological control
    several mechanical devices are used to reduce industrial emission of particulate matter  (e.g. scrubbers, filters, and electrostatic precipitators).
  36. energy conservation steps to reduce air pollution (5)
    1. increase ...
    2. develop
    3. use...
    4. increase...
    5. increase... 
    • 1. increase the efficiency of older power plants
    • 2. develop more renewable and alternative energy sources (wind turbines solar pannels)
    • 3. use energy-efficient designs in home construction and electrical appliances; try to reduce dependence on such appliances
    • 4. increase the fuel efficieny of motor vechicles as in the use of hybrid gas-electric and other high mileagef designs.
    • 5.increase the use of public transportation
  37. demand side management (3)
    • car pooling
    • mass transport
    • recycle/reuse
  38. notable intervention programs in asia
    largely response...
    other...
    • largely responsible to citizens/courts demandss
    • -1998 phillipines, clean air act passed after 5 million citizens signed a petition
    • -Delhi reduction in diesel and highest use of natural gas for commerical vechicles
    • -Kitakyushu, Japan: Women's movement in 50-60s 
    • Other - lead phase out except in indonesia
  39. On-going programs
    for vehicular:
    for industrial pollution
    • vehicular pollution
    • -scrapping old vehicles
    • -improving fuel quality (sulfur in diesel etc.)
    • -inspection and maintenance
    • -emission standards (mainly Europe)
    • Industrial pollution -foxcus on cleaner technologies and energy conservation
  40. strategies to reduce indoor pollution
    • improved stoves
    • cleaner fuels
    • better ventilation
    • awareness raising

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