neuro 1 CNS.txt

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  1. Central nervous system (CNS)
    • comprised of brain and spinal cord
    • integrates information and controls the peripheral nervous system
  2. Three major anatomical areas of brain
    • cerebrum
    • cerebellum
    • brain stem
  3. Cerebrum
    • largest portion of brain
    • comprised of 2 hemispheres connected by corpus callosum
    • highly convoluted with elevations (gyri) and depressions (sulci)
    • outer surface or cortex consists of gray matter where nerve cell bodies are located
    • inner area consists mostly of white matter - nerve fiber tracts
    • whithin white matter are clusters of nerve cells bodies - basal ganglia
  4. Basal ganglia
    • help control position or orientation
    • subconscious movements
    • defective in Parkinson's disease due to loss of dopaminergic neurons
  5. Cerebrum involved in;
    • intelligence
    • personality
    • motor function
    • touch sensation
    • executive function
    • interpretation of sensory impulses
  6. Ventricles
    four cavities within the brain filled with cerebrospinal fliud
  7. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • composition similar to plasma
    • formed at a rate of 0.35-0.4 ml/min (500-600 ml/day)
    • turnover time of 4-5 hours
    • total volume of 140 ml
    • reabsorbed into venous sinuses of the dura mater
    • acts as protective cushion
    • hydrocephalus (water on the brain) common in newborns due to CSF obstruction
  8. Cerebellum
    • controls volume movement
    • balance and equilibrium
    • muscle tone
  9. Damage to cerebellum can lead to:
    • asynergia
    • dysmetria
    • asiadochokinesia
    • intention tremors
    • ataxic gait
    • tendency toward falling
    • hypotonia
    • ataxic dysarthria
    • nystagmus
  10. Brain stem
    • located at the juncture of the cerebrum and the spinal column
    • includes midbrain, medulla oblongata, pons
    • relays information between peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the cortex
  11. Brain stem controls:
    • alertness
    • arousal
    • blood pressure
    • breathing
    • cranial nerves
    • digestion
    • heart rate
    • other autonomic functions
  12. Spinal cord
    • housed within the vertebral column
    • continuous with brain stem
    • consists of millions of nerve fibers (grouped together in different bundles called tracts)
    • ascending tracts and descending tracts
  13. Ascending tracts
    • convey information from dorsal or sensory root to cortex
    • sensory nerves
  14. Descending tracts
    • convery impulses from cortex to ventral or motor root to initiate movement and/or contraol body functions
    • motor nerves
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neuro 1 CNS.txt
2012-10-22 00:34:39
neuro part CNS

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