bills review

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tpaulmen
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bills review
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2012-10-21 21:12:07
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chapter 11
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  1. Constructivist and Narrative
    Approaches to Career Development
    • Constructivism is a psychological approach that has developed out of a
    • philosophical position, post-modernism

    • -Post-modernism, take a rational approach that emphasizes scientific
    • proof and is a reflection of advances in technology and science.

    • -Postmodernism reflects a multicultural diverse world in which
    • psychologist, counselors, philosophers, and others have recognized that
    • different individuals can have their own construct or view of what is real for
    • them.

    • - Constructivist view individuals as creating their own views of events
    • and relationships in their lives.
  2. Narrative Counseling
    • Clients narrate, or tell about their past and present career development
    • and construct their future career. Listening to the description of the clients
    • live can help a consular to assist them in future career decisions.

    • -There are three components to creating a tory SETTING, ACTION,
    • INSTRUMENT. 
  3. Storytelling
    •  In narrative
    • counseling, both client and counselor learn from the client’s narration of the
    • story. 
  4. Goals of Assessment in Narrative
    Counseling
     Sorting out significant data.

    - Guideline must be made in order to sort out significant data.

    - Story should include emphasis on clients past life.

    • - Listing to a narrative is to identify a pattern in the client’s lives.
    • Not on the chronological events but the meaning of those events.

    • - Form a sense of the client’s identity, clients identity consists of
    • both story and approach in how the client tells the story.

    • -Listening to narrative and assessing it is to learn about the client’s
    • goals for the future. 
  5. Cochran’s Narrative Career
    Counseling
    • The first three
    • episodes emphasized making meaning out of the career narrative: elaborating a
    • career problem, composing a life history, founding a future narrative. 
  6. Composing a life History
    • - 1st intention. First stage of trait and factor theory is to
    • gather information about clients’ interests, values, abilities, and motives.

    • - 2nd intention is to attend to the way individuals select and
    • organize their life stories.

    • _ In addition to asking clients to describe their life histories, several
    • techniques those counselors can use in composing a life history. Four of these techniques
    • are a success, experiences, lifelines, the career-o- gram, and life chapters. 
  7. Success Experience
    • Client to make a list
    • of activities that were enjoyable and in which the client felt a sense of accomplishment.
    • Abilities, skills, special knowledge, or charter traits such as being honest.
  8. Lifetime
    •  Record important life experiences and put them
    • in chronological order on the paper.
  9. Career-O-Gram
    • Group’s important
    • factors in a person’s development into categories, and then draws lines from
    • one to another to indicate where connections exist.
  10. Life Chapters
    • The clients can be
    • told to imagine that his or her life is like a book and that he or she is to
    • make the important chapters in his or her life. 
  11. Eliciting a Future Narrative 
    • - This stage focuses on evaluation of one’s strength, interests, and
    • values.

    - These include success experiences, lifetime, career-o-gram, and life chapters.


    • - There are five sections: missions, strengths, work needs,
    • vulnerabilities, and possibilities. 
  12. Reality Constraints
    Action is a significant component of narrative career counseling.

    • - They need to try out variety of actions, the more active the
    • exploration the more successful the outcome.
  13. Changing a Life Structure
    •  Clients expect change to a situation, oneself or
    • both. 
  14. Enacting a Role
    • Trying things out is
    • away of trying to make ones desired goal possible. 
  15. Crystallizing a Decision
    •  Occurs
    • when a gap between a client’s career problem and the idea or possible solutions
    • diminishes.

    • - Cochran believes that crystallizing can be facilitated in three ways:
    • identifying and eliminating obstruction, actualizing opportunities, and
    • reflecting on career decisions. 
  16. Savickas’s Career Construction
    Theory
    •  Views career theory from a social
    • constructionist point of view. He views Hollands hexagon and super stages as
    • social constructs, and is less concerned about viewing them from a scientific
    • point of view than from the point of view of the client.

    • - What’s important for Savivkas  is
    • the adaptation to the environment and events that individuals face. 
  17. Developmental Tasks of Career Adaptability

    Growth
    • -Their interests, capacities, and values are changing. Stories often
    • reflect these changes, as interests can be more fully developed than fantasies.
  18. Exploration
    • - 15-25 years of age, individuals are exploring a number of career possibilities.
    • Clarification of what they may want to do, how they learn jobs, how they did in
    • their part time positions, and whether they want more education.
  19. Management
    •  Is between the ages of 45-65, often include
    • holding onto one’s job, while at the same time learning more about what is
    • required in the job and dealing with new technological adventurers.
  20. Disengagement
    • Around the age of 65, individuals think about the possibility of loosing
    • their job due to health or physical limitations.

    • -Thoughts of planning for their retirement and actually retiring are
    • tasks that individuals may discuss with a counselor at this point in their
    • life. 
  21. Dimensions of Career Adaptability
    • Savickas concerns are not only with developmental tasks of career
    • adaptability but also the process of adapting.

    • - Adaptability refers to the individual, where as psychological maturity
    • involves comparison with other individuals.
  22. Concern
    • - Individuals become concerned with their indifferent or lack of action
    • on an issue dealing with career choice or work adjustment. People are likely to
    • plan for the future.
  23. Control
    • They may need to
    • become more diverse in their life choices because they feel they have relatively
    • no control over their lives.
  24. Confidence
    • They some times lack
    • confidence to fully explore possibilities. 
  25. Life-Themes
    •  Is derived from Adler lifestyle
    • concept. Adler was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud. Born in 1870 and lived in
    • Vienna, Austria.

    • - Knowing a persons lifestyle provides a means of understanding the basic
    • themes in that person’s life. 
  26. Lifestyle
    •  Lifestyle is typically developed by the ages
    • of four to six. Observed children interacting with each other and believed that
    • their behavior at that age influenced them in later life. 
  27. Early Recollections
    • - Recollections are significant aspect of determining the person’s
    • lifestyle. 
  28. Five Major Life Tasks
    •  five major interrelated tasks:
    • spiritual development, occupation, society, and love.

    Career Counseling Using the Career Construction Model
  29. Career Styles Interview
    •  It provides questions to ask clients that will
    • help the counselor identify the lifestyle of the individual.
  30. Career counseling Using Career
    Construction Theory
    • - People talk about things that matter and have meaning to them. Savickas
    • suggests that counselors use the same language as clients, such as favorite
    • words or metaphors that the client uses.

    1. Attending to Verbs

    2. Reviewing counseling goals. 
  31. Examining Headlines of the
    Recollections
    •  Telling to create a catchy headline so that
    • the client and counselor can help compress the story.
  32. The Role of Assessment
    Instruments
    •   Standard interest inventories,
    • values inventories, and tests of ability and achievement play a minor role in
    • constructivist career counseling.

    • - Applying inventories or tests that are used for all individuals may not
    • help in understanding the perceptual world of client.

    • - Because constructivist and narrative career counselors are focused on
    • understanding the client’s perception of their career problems and the
    • constructs that they use to see their world, constructivist counselors are
    • cautious about using instruments that impose a test or inventory developer’s
    • set of constructs on the client. 
  33. The Role of Occupational
    Information
    •  Constructivist and Narrative career counselors
    • are concerned not only with constructs that individuals use to see themselves,
    • but also with constructs that they use in viewing the world around them. 

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