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What is the SDLC? What name is the SDLC also called?
- Systems development life cycle (SDLC) - a
- structured step-by-step approach for developing information systems
Also called a waterfall methodology
What are the 7 phases of the SDLC?
What is the major document produced after each phase?
Which phase is the most costly for making a change to the system?
Which phase is most inexpensive for making a change to the system?
What is the difference between scope creep and feature creep?
Scope creep - occurs when the scope of the project increases
Feature creep - occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements
Who is responsible for each type of creep?
Project manager - an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan and tracks the plan to ensure all key project milestones are completed on time
What is the difference between a RAD session and a JAD session?
- Rapid application development (RAD)
- (also called rapid prototyping) - emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate systems development
What type of information does the technical architecture contain?
- Technical architecture - defines the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment required to run the
What is the difference between the testing methods (unit, system, integration and acceptance)?
- Testing phase - verifies that the system works and
- meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
Two primary testing activities:
- 1.Write the test conditions
- Test conditions - the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step
- the testing of the system
- – tests individual units of code
- – verifies that the units of code function correctly when integrated
- Integration testing
- – verifies that separate systems work together
User acceptance testing (UAT) – determines if the system satisfies the business requirements
What are differences between the implementation
methods (parallel, pilot, plunge, phase)?
Of these methods (which are risky, less risky,
expensive, less expensive)?
Implementation phase - distribute the system to all of the knowledge workers and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs
Two primary implementation activities
1.Write detailed user documentation
User documentation - highlights how to use the system
- training for the system users
Online training- runs over the Internet or off a CD-ROM Workshop training - is held in a classroom environment and lead by an instructor
äChoose the right implementation method
- – use both the old and new system simultaneously
- Plunge implementation
- – discard the old system completely and use the new
Pilot implementation– start with small groups of people on the new system and gradually add more users
Phased implementation– implement the new system in phases
What is Component based development (CBD)?
Component-based development (CBD) – focuses on building small self-contained blocks of code (components) that can be reused across a variety of applications
1.Using already-developed components
2.Building new components as needed
Name and define the 3 types of CBD.
Rapid application development (RAD)
Extreme programming (XP)
What is the difference between (self-source, insource
Selfsourcing (end-user development) – the development and support of IT systems by end users with little or no help from IT specialists
- Outsourcing– the delegation of specified work to a
- third party for a specified length of time, at a specified cost, and at a specified level of service
What is prototyping? What are the steps to the prototyping
- Prototyping - the process of building a model that
- demonstrates the features of a proposed product, service, or system
The prototyping process involves four steps:
1.Identify basic requirements
2.Develop initial prototype
4.Revise and enhance the prototype
What are advantages and disadvantages of prototyping?
- Encourages active user participation
Helps resolve discrepancies among users
Gives users a feel for the final system
Helps determine technical feasibility
Helps sell the idea of a proposed system
- Leads people to believe the final system
- will follow
- Gives no indication of performance under
- operational conditions
- Leads the project team to forgo proper
- testing and documentation
What is the difference between the proof of concept prototype and the selling prototype?
Proof-of-concept prototype - prove the technical feasibility of a proposed system
Selling prototype - used to convince people of the worth of a proposed system
What are the steps to self sourcing?
What are advantages/disadvantages to self-sourcing?
What is meant by the invisible backlog?
Why has outsourcing grown so rapidly?
- The main reasons behind the rapid growth
- of the outsourcing industry include the following:
- The Internet
- Growing economy and low unemployment rate
What are the 4 outsourcing options?
1.Purchase existing software
2.Purchase existing software and pay the publisher to make certain modifications
3.Purchase existing software and pay the publisher for the right to make modifications yourself
4.Outsource the development of an entirely new and unique system for which no software exists
What is an RFP and SLA?
- Request for proposal (RFP) – formal document that describes in excruciating detail your logical requirements for a proposed system and invites outsourcing organizations to submit bids for
- its development
In outsourcing, you must tell another organization what you want developed; you do that with an RFP
Therefore, the RFP must be very detailed
Some RFPs can take years to develop
What are the 3 forms of outsourcing?
1.Onshore outsourcing- the process of engaging another company within the same country for services
2.Nearshore outsourcing- contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country
3.Offshore outsourcing- contracting with a company that is geographically far away
What are advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing?
Focus on unique core competencies
Exploit the intellect of another organization
Better predict future costs
Acquire leading-edge technology
Improve performance accountability
Reduces technical know-how for future innovation
Reduces degree of control
Increases vulnerability of your strategic information
Increases dependency on other organizations
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