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WORK ADJUSTMENT THEORY
Two factors lead to TENURE:
- Satisfaction-being happy with the
- work one does
- satisfaction with the individual's performance
- *The theory is concerned with actual
- job performance, not just career selection or work adjustment.
Assessment abilities, values, and personality
- dimension for skills" including work skills, aptitudes (predicted, not
- acquired). To assess abilities, the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). GATB
- measures nine abilities.
- represents a grouping of needs in a job. Values and needs are assessed using
- the Minn. Importance Question.
- • Achievement
- (making use of one's abilities/sense of accomplishment) VS Comfort
- (non-stressful work)
- • Status
- (recognition by others) VS Altruism (how one can help others)
- • Safety
- (order/predictability) VS Autonomy (chance to work on their own)
- Concerned with how an individual with
- particular abilities and values interacts with his or her work situation...Four
- characteristics of personality style
Celerity-speed with approaching tasks
Pace-efforts spent in working
Rhythm-pattern of effort or pace
- Endurance-how long one is likely to
- continue on a task
Step Two: Measuring
the requirements and conditions of occupations
- There are ways to measure the
- abilities and values needed for occupation, and this can be done by averaging
- the scores for people in various occupations on the GATB and MIQ.
- Patterns: help to describe the important abilities that are required
- for a vast variety of jobs. Does an individual have the abilities similar to
- those who are successful in a given occupation?
- Patterns: developed the Minn. Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ)...it
- assesses how well an occupation reinforces or meets each of the 20 needs. Does
- a job meets the needs of an individual?
- *Combine ability and value patterns
- to create the Minn. Occupational Classification System (MOCS)
Three: Matching abilities, values, and reinforcers
- When matching and individual's values
- and abilities to a job, counselors have three tools: the MIQ, GATB, and MOCS.
- Style: the
- degree of fit between person and environment; how an individual relates to the
- work environment.
qualities that describe this fit:
- Flexibility- the ability of a person
- to tolerate unpleasant or difficult aspects of the job
- Activeness- trying to change the
Reactiveness- changing themselves
- Perseverance- how long a person can
- take adverse conditions before changing jobs
- Performance: satisfaction and well being while dealing with
- change...refers to three variables: Proactive Behavior (adjusting work
- environment), Reactive Behavior (adjusting ourselves), and Tolerant Behavior (tolerating
- difficult issues when the other two don't work).
- • Work
- adjustment theory can be used to conceptualize the types of problems that
- someone can have in adjusting to a job.
- • I.E. their
- skills may not be fully developed for the job or ma not be able to fully
- develop them, values and needs are not met on the job, does not understand the
- reinforcer patterns of the work involved, or person could be having problems at
- home which affect work
- • Assess the
- discrepancies between the individual's values and abilities and the ability
- patterns and reinforcer patterns of the job.
- • Make
- changes in the work itself so that reinforcer patterns are altered.
- • Try to
- find activities in a non-work environment that has the same abilities and
- reinforcers as their previous job.
- WAT can be expanded to cover two
- issues related to women: integrating work and family, and sexual harassment.
- Could help determine things to add to needs list.
HOLLAND'S THEORY OF TYPES
- • Career
- choice and adjustment are an extension of a person's personality.
- • People
- express themselves and their interests and values through work choices and
- • Holland
- assumes that people's impressions and generalizations about work are generally
- to work with animals, tools or machines, avoids social things like teaching and
- informing. Skills in mechanical/electrical areas. Values practical things.
- to study, solve problems, avoids leading or persuading people. Good at
- understanding problems, and values science. Sees self as precise, scientific,
- and intellectual.
- Artistic: likes to
- do creative activities like art, drama, dance, music, or writing. Avoids order
- and repetition. Has good artistic abilities. Values creativity. Sees self as
- expressive, original and independent.
- Social: likes to
- do things to help people, like teaching, nursing, providing information. Avoids
- machines and tools. Good at teaching, counseling, nursing. Values helping
- people and solving social problems. Sees self as helpful, friendly, and
- to lead and persuade people, sell things and ideas. Avoids activities that
- require careful observation and analytical thinking. Good at leading people,
- and sales. Values success in politics, leadership, or business. Sees self as
- energetic, ambitious and sociable.
- to work with numbers, records, and orderly things. Avoids ambiguous,
- unstructured activities. Good at working with written records and numbers in a
- systematic way. Values success in business. Sees self as orderly and following
- a set plan.
*Combination of types
- People do not fit just one Holland
- code type
- Instruments have been developed:
- Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and Self Directed Search (SDS)
- CONGRUENCE is the relationship of the
- personality to the environment.
- *SIE individual is highly congruent
- with SIE job.
- DIFFERENTIATION is how people and
- environments may differ in terms of how clearly they belong to one type.
- *Highly differentiated means that you
- are more dominant in one type.
- Implications: UNDIFFERENTIATED people
- may have more difficulty making career decisions...our goal is to help them
- differentiate and broaden their knowledge of their interests, values, and
- abilities within each of the six types.
- CONSISTENCY is the similarity or
- dissimilarity of types. The closer the types are on the hexagon, the more
IDENTITY is the clarity and stability
of a person's current and future goals.
- A CLEAR individual's identity would be:
- stable, with articulate career plans, contingency plans, knowledge of self,
- knowledge of work, and job search strategies.
- A DIFFUSE individual's identity would be:
- unstable, unable to state career plans, no contingency plans, little knowledge
- of self, little knowledge of work, few job search strategies.
The Occupation Finder
- look through it to get an idea of
- what types might do what type of work. Covers a thousand of the more common
- The Education Finder...identifies
- more than 750 programs of study.
- The Dictionary of Holland
- Occupational Codes...lists 12,099 occupations sorted by Holland code.
- Vocational Preference Inventory:
- initiated before Holland, but is now used with the SDS.
- Career Attitudes and Strategies
- Inventory: helps assess the views of adults toward work.
- Position Classification Inventory:
- helps classify positions according to Holland type. Given to current workers,
- to help determine the Holland code for a job.
- Environmental Identity Scale: helps
- assess the workers views about the explicitness and consistency of employers'
- goals, work rules, and rewards.
- Women tend to score higher on Social,
- Artistic, and Conventional scales than men.
- Holland's model works well across
- : has been
- studied in many countries, but has not always been validated in places like
- China and South Africa.
- Congruence of client and counselor
- types is a potential issue. Most counselors are Social, with SI, SA, & SE
- being the most common.