Ch. 3

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Author:
Nordy911
ID:
178875
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Ch. 3
Updated:
2012-10-21 22:45:41
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Music Mentorship
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Description:
Scales, Keys, and Modes
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  1. Scales
    Ordered collection of pitches in whole- and half-step patterns
  2. Chromatic scale
    Symmetrical Scale- all pitches spaced a half step apart
  3. Major Scale
    • asymmetrical- pattern is a combination of whole and half steps
    • WWHWWWH
  4. Major tetrachords
    • WWHWWWH
    • Four note groups
  5. Accidental
    Note that is not a member of a scale or mode according to the key signature
  6. Enharmonically equivalent
    • Same note but different way of saying it
    • Ex. A flat = G sharp
    • Ex. C flat scale and B scale
  7. Key
    • Specific series of pitches based on a pattern of whole and half steps that define a Tonality
    • Tonality- the principal of organizing a composition around that key note or tonic
  8. Tonality
    • The principal of organizing a composition around that key note or tonic
    • Reference to pitch center only
    • Different than key
  9. Modality
    • Defining of key as major or minor (or pentatonic)
    • Named after their tonic keynote
  10. Key signature
    shows which pitches are sharp or flat consistantly throughout the piece
  11. All keys with sharps
    G D A E B F# G#
  12. All keys with flats
    • F B* E* A* D* G* C*
    • (star means flat)
  13. Relative
    • have same pitches and same key signature
    • Ex. C major and A minor key
    • The tonic of the relative minor scale is the 6th scale degree (submediant) of the major key
  14. 3 Forms of Minor
    • Natural, harmonic, melodic
    • all start with same minor pentachord- first 5 notes
  15. Natural harmonic
    no changes from key signature
  16. Parallel
    major and minor keys with different key signatures but the same tonic are called this
  17. Harmonic minor
    7th scale degree is raised on the way up and down
  18. Melodic minor
    6th and 7th raised going up and back to normal on the way back
  19. Scalar variance
    the use of natural, harmonic, and melodic minor within one piece
  20. Artificial scales/altered scales
    • vary from key signature
    • Ex. Harmonic and melodic minor
  21. Tonic
    • 1 scale degree
    • tone on which scale is built
  22. Supertonic
    • 2
    • above the tonic
  23. Mediant
    • 3
    • median position
    • halfway between tonic and dominant
  24. Subdominant
    • 4
    • a fifth below the tonic, or the lower dominant
  25. Dominant
    • 5
    • pitch dominating the tonality
    • fifth above the tonic
  26. Submediant
    • 6
    • the median pitch between the subdominant and the tonic
  27. Leading Tone
    • 7
    • leads towards resolution to the tonic
  28. Scale types and their different scale degrees
    • Major- Normal
    • Natural Minor- 7th scale degree now whole step below tonic, called the subtonic
    • Harmonic Minor- Normal
    • Melodic Minor- 6th scale degree is called raised submediant
  29. Active Tones
    • 4, 6, and 7
    • have most musical energy to move to resolve
  30. Resolution tones
    • 1, 3
    • notes to which the active tones move
  31. Diatonic
    • within the scale
    • resolution is always a diatonic step away
  32. Pentatonic Scale
    has five tones- 1, 2, 3, 5, 6
  33. Whole tone scale
    • Made up of whole steps
    • Ex. 1 2 3 4# 5# 6#
  34. Diminished scale (octatonic scale)
    • 1 2 3* 4 5* 6* 6 7
    • W H W H W H W H
  35. Blues scale
    1 3* 4 5* 5 *7
  36. Church Modes
    • Ionian- major
    • Dorian- natural minor + #6
    • Phrygian- natural minor plus 2*
    • Lydian- major + # 4
    • Mixolydian- major + 7*
    • Aeolian- natural minor
    • Locrian- natural minor + 2* and 5*
    • Remember by I Dont Play Loud Music At Lunch
  37. Phrygian
    nat minor + 2*
  38. Aeolian
    nat minor
  39. Dorian
    Nat minor #6
  40. Mixolydian
    maj + 7*
  41. Ionian
    major
  42. Lydian
    Major + #4
  43. Locrian
    • has diminished tonic triad
    • considered- minor + 2* 5*

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