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everyone has (3)
multi faceted concept
- chronological age - based on calendar year
- biological age - based on biological changes in body
- socio-cultural age - based on socio-cultural definitions
Human life cycle consists of several stages: what are they?
- 1) Prenatal - begins with conception and ends with birth (bone measurement)
- 2) infancy - when baby is nursing (bone length, dental development and bone development)3) Childhood- from weaning to pubery (all of above plus epiphyseal fusion)
- 4)adolescence - puberty to end of growth (ageing mostly done by epiphyseal fusion, some dental)
- 5) Adulthood- completion of growth (epiphyseal fusion, senescent bone changes, dental attrition)
Aim to to obtain ______age objective is to estimate ______age
- biological - caused by growth, development maturation and degeneration
Growth and development?
growth and development = sequence of events: structures apprear and generally increase in size
Maturation= structual change of existing skeletal features
Growth begins at ___a___ and continues until late __b__ or early _c____
Occurs very quickly during first __d.___wekks of foetal development and slows during the last _e.___weeks
- a. conception
- c. 20's
growth spurt occurs __? earlier in
- embryo - first 8 weeks intra-uterine life
- foetus - 8weeks until birth
- perinate - around time of birth
- neonate - first 4 weeks after birth
- infant - birth till 1 year
- early childhood- 1-5yrs
- late childhood 6-10 yrs
- early adolescence - 10-14 yrs
- late adolescence - 15-17 yrs
- juvenile < 18yrs
which two stages of juvenile development ahve very accurate bone length for age determination
what kind of relationship is between age and length?
Foetal and Neonatal
linear relationship b/w age and length
As child ages more variation occurs in -_____ due to ___ ____
As child ages more variation occurs in long bone length due to outside influences
Fusion of ______centers follows time schedule that can be equated to ____
used in juvenile ___,____.____,___
- skull,mandible,atlas and axis
Age of fusion?
sphenoid and mastoid fontanelle -
- metopic sutre -2-4 years
- posterior fontanelle 6 months
- anterior fontanelle-1-2 years
- sphenoid and mastoid fontanelle -after birth
Epiphyseal fusion most useful for estimating ages of individuals between ___&____yes
teeth grow starting with ___ of cusps and finishing with ___
what is the most accurate ageing method for juveniles?
who compiled data?
teeth not affected by environmental factors, malnutrition, or developmental disturbances like skeletal growth
when tooth roots ___ to ___ complete teeth ___ into position im mouth
ages of eruption is ____ specific
0.5, 0.75, erupt