intro to criminal justice

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intro to criminal justice
2012-11-13 12:59:11
intro criminal justice study guide

ch. 4-6
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  1. The _______ is the chief law enforcement office in a county.
  2. This federal agency deals with the illegal sale, importation and criminal misuse of firearms and explosives.
  3. The identification of criminal suspects by matching DNA samples taken from their person with specimens found at the crime scene.
    DNA profiling
  4. Most metropolitan law enforcement agencies employ more than 50 officers.
  5. In 1893 this agency was formed and created a civil service police force for removing policital influence and control.
  6. Vice squads target violent crime.
  7. Most promotions in policing have _______ requirements.
    Time in rank
  8. A department policy that emphasizes stopping crimes before they occur, rather than reacting to crimes that have already occurred. This is called what?
    Proactive policing
  9. ________ is the use of scientific techniques to investigate questions of interest to the justice system and solve crimes.
    Forensic science
  10. ________ is where police patrols take officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat in order to strengthen ties with the community.
    Foot patrol
  11. The more serious the crime the more likely it is that detectives will solve it.
  12. One aggressive patrol program, known as the ___________, was directed at restricting the carrying of guns in high-risk places at high risk times.
    Kansas City Gun Experiment
  13. _______ is an aggressive law enforcement style that emphasizes attacking crimes head-on in advance rather than waiting for calls for service.
    Proactive policing
  14. These police officers are assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as prostitution, gambling, and pornography.
    Vice squad
  15. Police work primarily involves crime fighting.
  16. In order for detectives to investigate effectively they can rely on Martin Innes three-pronged approach. What are the three-prongs?
    Specific focus: interview witnesses, gather evidence, record events and collect facts at the immediate crime scene.

    General coverage: 1.canvass the neighborhood and make observations. 2. conduct interviews with friends, families and associates. 3. contact coworkers or employers for information about victims and suspects. 4. construct victim/suspect timelines to outline their where abouts prior to incident.

    Informative: use modern technology to collect records of cell phones, computer hard drives, diaries, notes, and documents.
  17. _________ is the branch of the police department that investigates charges of corruption or misconduct on the part of the police officers.
    Internal affairs
  18. __________ are programs and strategies designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more cooperative working environment between them.
    Community policing
  19. A program originated by the New York City police that used carefully collected and analyed crime data to shape policy and evaluate police effectiveness.
  20. The average police officer can expect to make between 10 and 15 arrests per month for serious crimes.
  21. The top administrator of the police department, who sets policy and has general control over department policies and practices.
    Police chief
  22. Police and detective investigations have improved dramatically due to advances in ___________.
    Forensic science
  23. A patrol strategy that involves concentrating police resources in areas where certain crimes are a significant problem.
    Directed patrol
  24. An undercover police operation in which police pose as criminals to trap law violators.
    Sting operation
  25. The detective bureau is considered the backbone of policing.
  26. Inregards to the 1982 paper by George Keeling and James Q. Wilson which came to be known as the broken windows model. What three points were made?
    1. Neighborhood disorder creates fear.

    2. Neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals.

    3. Police need citizen cooperation.
  27. Most crimes are solved when the perpetrator is identified at the crime scene.
  28. For police officers to advance in rank, they must spend an appropriate amount of time in the preceding rank. What is this called?
    Time in rank
  29. College degrees may have little direct impact on promotion potentials for police officers.
  30. This federal agency enforces federal drug control laws.
  31. This was a call for assistance in medieval England.
    Hue and cry
  32. This person established in 1326 was created to help shire reeve in controlling the country.
    Justice of the peace
  33. There are fewer private police than public police.
  34. This federal agency is th arm of the U.S. Justice Department that investigates violations of federal law, seeks to protect America from terrorist attacks, gather crime statistics, runs a comprehensive crime laboratory and helps train local law enforcement officers.
  35. Groups of citizens who tracked down wanted criminals in the Old West.
  36. During the nineteenth century, the police were regarded as competent and professional.
  37. What U.S. Supreme Court case ruled on the use of deadly force to stop a fleeing felon?
    Tennessee vs. Garner
  38. List six warrantless searches:
    1. Search incident to a valid arrest

    2. Stop and frisk

    3. Automobile search

    4. Consent search

    5. Plain-view search

    • 6. Exigent circumstances
  39. What are four factorsthat relate to police shootings?
    1. Exposure to violence

    2. National crime rates

    3. Community threat levels

    4. Administrative factors

  40. In the landmark case, ___________ the Supreme Court held that police officers can perform a stop and frisk when they have reasonable suspicion to believe criminal activity is afoot.
    Terry vs. Ohio
  41. The ______________ provides that all evidence obtained by inreasonable searches and seizures is inadmissible in criminal trials.
    Exclusionary rule
  42. The _______________ is the principle that evidence may be used in a criminal trial, even though the search warrant used to obtain it is technically faulty, if the police acted in good faith and to the best of their ability when they sought to obtain it from a judge.
    Good Faith Exception
  43. What 1961 Supreme Court casr made the exclusionary rule applicable to state courts?
    Mapp vs. Ohio
  44. A ____________ is a court order authorizing and directing poice to search a designated place for evidence of a crime.
    Search warrant
  45. What are three procedural requirements that must be met in order to obtain a search warrant?
    1. The police officer must request the warrant from the court.

    2. The officer must submit an affidavit establishing the proper grounds for the warrant.

    3. The affidavit must state the place to be searched and the property to be seized.
  46. ______________ is the evidentiary criterion necessary to sustain an arrest or the issuance of an arrest or search warrant. (Facts or circumstances that would lead a reasonable and Prudent person to believe that criminal activity is afoot); less than absolute certainty, but ggreater than mere suspicion or "hunch".
    Probable cause