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  1. Septimius Severus
    • reigned 193-211
    • Pannonian general
    • restructured the empire in favor of the army
    • expanded the army's size, raised military pay
  2. Diocletian
    regined 284-305
  3. Publius Helvius Pertinax
    • son of a freed slave in the north of Italy (Liguria)
    • was a schoolteacher,  left that to join the military
    • 1st non senatorial emperor
  4. Franks
    • Germanic tribes
    • began raiding expeditions into the empire
  5. Alemanni
    • Germanic tribes
    • began raiding expeditions into the empire
  6. Berbers
    • African tribes 
    • harrassed the Roman fronteirs
  7. Postumus
    • Provincial aristocrat
    • commander made into emperor by the armies of Spain, Britain, and Gaul 
    • 258-268
    • separatist reign was the longest and most stable of any emperor of the entire troubled perior
  8. Honestiores
    The privileged classes of the later Roman Empire: senators, municipal gentry, and the military.
  9. Humiliores
    The lower classes of the later Roman Empire whose status declined from the period of the Pax Romana and who suffered disproportionately from the tax increases of the period.
  10. Bacaudae
    • Resistance movements that were alway ruthlessly crushed.
    • peasants and local leaders organized armed resistance movements to withstand exorbitant demands of tax collectors.
  11. Bulla the Lucky
    • most famous of the bandits
    • more than 600men
    • plundered Italy during the reign of Septimius Serverus
    • Roman Robin Hood
  12. Maximinus the Thracian
    • known as Little Big Man
    • 173-238
    • moved from shephard to rustler to member of the Roman army
    • Became centurian for Septimius Severus
    • proclaimed emperor in 235 at Mainz by a mutinous army
  13. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest
  14. Tacitus
    wrote a brief account of the Germanic peoples living beyond the frontiers
  15. Wergeld
    In Germanic society, the payment in reparaion for crimes in place of blood vengeance.  Tribal leaders used it to reduce internal hostilities
  16. Federated tribes
    • Germanic tribes that made treaties with Rome 
    • agreed to oppose other Germanic Tribes that were hostile to Rome
  17. Goths
    • Group along the Oder and Vistula rivers
    • their kings exercised more military authority
  18. Aurelian
    • soldier-emperor (270-275)
    • kept the Roman empire from crumbling
    • started to rebuild by repulsing the barbarians, restore the unity of the empire, stabilizing the internal imperial structure
  19. Tetrachy
    • rule by four
    • empire was divided into east and west.  Each was ruled by an Augustus and his ceasar
    • this provided a succession plan that was not in existance prior 
  20. Coloni
    Tenant farmers who worked on the estates of wealthy landowners in the Roman Empire
  21. Decurions
    Members of th ecity councils in the roman Empire.  Initially, they were the backbone of the provincial elite but by the third and fourth centuries wer crippled by their personal responsibility for provincial taxes
  22. The Great Persecution
    persecution of Christians in Imperial Rome in 303-313 
  23. Constantine
    • wrecked the tetrarchy in a struggle to control the empire
    • plunged the empire into civil war fighting over the western half of the empire
    • defeated Maxentius in a battle at the Mulvian Bridge
    • Converted to Christianity
    • established his capital in Constantinople
    • stopped the persecution of Christians  - built churches
  24. Constantinople
    • Capital of the Roman Empire under Constantine
    • was known as the New Rome
    • served as the heart of the Roman and Byzantine world
  25. Theodosius I
    • one of the most powerful Christian successors to Constantine
    • anered by riots in the Greek city of Thessalonica, ordered a general massacre
    • was repremanded by Ambrose
    • eventually acknowledged that even the emperor was subject to God
  26. Ambrose
    • Bishop of Milan
    • reprimanded emperor Theodosius I
    • banned/excommunicated the emperor
  27. The Edict of Toleration
    Constantine and Licinius Augustus wrote to allow the freedom  of worship of any religion.  This granted Christians the right to worship 
  28. Theodosian Code
    • made the official religion of Rome Christianity - Catholic
    • prohibited any other religion
    • abolished sacrifices
  29. Christological controversies
    The debate about the Christian Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) and the relationship between humanity and divinity within it.  It caused great division and conflick in the Church and society from the third to the fifth centuries
  30. Monarchians
    Christians who emphasized the oneness of God by arguing that the three (trinity) represented three activities although God possessed only one substance
  31. Arians
    Christians who explained that Jesus was a man and not divine
  32. Origen
    • First Christian intellectual to undertake a systemeatic exposition on the Trinity
    • Alexandrine theologian (185-254)
  33. The Council of Nicaea
    • In 235, Constantine ordered all the bishops of the entire church to assemble and settle the dispute of the Christological controversies
    • adopted the term homoousion "of one being"
  34. The Chalcedon Formulation
    • In 451, at the urging on Bishop of Rome,  Pope Leo I they agreed in the one God there were three divine persons
    • established the "orthodox" (right-believing) position of the church
  35. Donatists
    • taught that salvation was the right of only a small, elite minority who held themselves above the imperfect lives of the masses
    • developed in North Africa
  36. Pelagians
    • also held themselves to a higher standard than that of ordinary Christians
    • believed that human nature had been so created that people could achieve perfection in this life
    • believed members of the true church perfected themselves by the force of their own will
  37. Augustine of Hippo
    • opposed both the Donatists and Pelagians
    • more than any other individual set the course of Western Christianity and political philosophy for the next 1,000 years
    • returned home after conversion and lived as a bishop the rest of his life
    • wrote Confessions
  38. Anthony
    • 250-355
    • well-to-do peasant
    • gave away all his possessions and left his village for the Egyptian desert
    • for the next 70 years sought to follow Christ
    • became the head of a large, loosely knit community of like-minded persons
  39. Monasticism
    The life of monks devoted to God, from the fourth century onwards, either as part of communal organization or in solitary life..  Monasticism began in Egypt as a rejection of the worldliness of cvilization
  40. Jerome
    • 347-420
    • Intellectual who heard the call of monastic life
    • the greatest linguist of antiquity
    • founded a monastery in Bethlehem
    • translated the Bible into Latin
  41. Basil the Great
    • Greek-speaking world
    • visited monasteries in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria then founded his own monastery at Pontus
    • his teachings founded the rule of governance for monastaries
  42. Simeon Stylites
    • Syrian hermit led a life of solitude
    • spent 36 years at the top of a pilar 50 feet high
  43. Huns
    • nomadic horse-riding people from central Asia
    • destroyed the Gothic confederation and absorbed many of the peoples who had constituted the Goths.
  44. Visigoths
  45. Alaric
    • Visigoth Chieftain
    • attacked Rome
  46. Ataulf
    • Alaric's successor - chieftan of Visigoths
    • eager to win the approval of the emperor
    • established a government at Bordeaux
  47. Vandals
    • Crossed over into Africa
    • Used their base in North Africa to raid
    • sacked Rome in 455
  48. Attila
    Hun leader
  49. Hypatia
  50. Theodoric
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2012-10-28 02:07:52

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