PSYC 2200 Exam #2

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PSYC 2200 Exam #2
2012-10-23 20:40:46
uva psychology psyc 2200 survey neural basis behavior exam

Terms for Exam #2 PSYC 2200
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  1. meninges
    • three layers of tissue that encase the CNS
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid membrane
    • pia mater
  2. dura mater
    • outermost of the meninges (literally, "hard mother")
    • thick, tough, flexible layer of tissue
  3. arachnoid membrane
    middle layer of the meninges, has a weblike appearance
  4. pia mater
    • layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain (literally, "pious mother")
    • thin and delicate membrane
  5. subarachnoid space
    fluid-filled space that cushions the brain, located between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater
  6. cerebrispinal fluid (CSF)
    a clear fluid (similar to blood plasma), fills the ventricular system of the brain and the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  7. ventricle
    a hollow space inside the brain filled with CSF
  8. lateral ventricle
    the two largest ventricles; located in the center of the telencephalon
  9. third ventricle
    • connected to the lateral ventricles
    • located in the center of the diencephalon at the midline of the brain
    • divides the surrounding part of the brain into symmetrical halves
  10. cerebral aqueduct
    • a narrow tube interconnecting the third and fourth ventricles
    • located in the center of the mesencephalon
  11. fourth ventricle
    ventricle located between the cerebellum and the dorsal pons (center of the mesencephalon)
  12. choroid plexus
    • highly vascular tissue (has rich blood supply) that protrudes into the ventricles
    • produces cerebrospinal fluid
  13. neural tube
    • a hollow tube closed at the rostral end
    • forms from ectodermal tissue early in the embryonic development
    • serves as the origin of the CNS
  14. cerebral cortex
    the outermost layer of gray matter of the berebral hemispheres
  15. ventricular zone
    • layer of cells that line the inside of the neural tube
    • contains progenitor cells that divide and give rise to the cells of the CNS
  16. progenitor cells
    cells of the ventricular zone that divide and form the cells of the CNS
  17. forebrain
    • the most rostral of the three major divisions of the brain
    • includes the telencephalon and diencephalon
  18. cerebral hemisphere
    one of the two major portions of the forebrain, covered by the cerebral cortex
  19. subcortical region
    region of the brain below the corical surface
  20. sulcus
    a groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere (smaller than a fissure)
  21. fissure
    a major groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere (larger than a sulcus)
  22. gyrus (gyri)
    bulge between adjacent sulci or fissures
  23. primary visual cortex
    region of the posterior occipital lobe whose primary input is from the visual system
  24. calcarine fissure
    • fissure located in the occipital lobe on the medial surface of the brain
    • most of the primary visual cortex is located along its upper and lower banks
  25. primary auditory cortex
    • region of the superior temporal lobe
    • primary input is from the auditory system
  26. lateral fissure
    fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes
  27. primary somatosensory cortex
    • region of the anterior parietal lobe
    • primary input is from the somatosensory system
  28. central sulcus
    sulcus that separates the frontal and parietal lobes
  29. primary motor cortex
    • region of the posterior frontal lobe
    • contains neurons that control movement of skeletal muscles
  30. frontal lobe
    anterior portino of the cerebral cortex, rostral fo the parietal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe
  31. parietal lobe
    region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the frontal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe
  32. temporal lobe
    region of the cerebral cortex rostral to the occipital lobe and ventral to the parietal and frontal lobes
  33. occipital lobe
    region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the parietal and temporal lobes
  34. sensory association cortex
    regions of the cerebral cortex that receive information from the regions of the primary sensory cortex
  35. midbrain
    the mesencephalon, central of the three major divisions of the brain
  36. mesencephalon
    • the midbrain
    • surrounds the cerebral aqueduct
    • two major parts: tectum and tegmentum
  37. tectum
    • the dorsal part of the midbrain
    • includes the superior and inferior colloculi
  38. superior colliculi
    • protrusions on top of the midbrain
    • part of the auditory system
  39. brain stem
    extends from the medulla to the diencephalon (excluding the cerebellum)
  40. tegmentum
    • the ventral oart if the midbrain
    • includes the periaquductal gray matter, rostral end of the reicular formation, red nucleus and susbstantia nigra
  41. reticular formation
    a large network of neural tissue located in the central reion of the brain stem (from the medulla to the diencephalon)
  42. periaqueductal gray matter
    • region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aquduct
    • contains neural circuits onvolved in species-typical behavior
  43. red nucleus
    • a large nucleus of the midbrain that receives inputs from the cerebellum and motor cortex
    • sends axons to motor neurons in the spinal cord
  44. susbstantia nigra
    • darkly stained region of the tegmentum
    • contains neurons that communicate with the caudate nucleus and putamen in the basal ganglia
  45. hindbrain
    • the most caudal of the three major divisions of the brain
    • includes the metencephalon and myencephalon
  46. cerebellum
    • a major part of the brain located dorsal to the pons
    • contains the two cerebellar hemispheres, covered with the cerebellar cortex
    • important component of the motor system
  47. cerebellar cortex
    the cortex the covers the surface of the cerebellum
  48. deep cerebellar nuclei
    • nuclei located within the cerebellar hemispheres
    • receives projections from the cerebellar cortex and sends projections out of the cerebellum to other parts of the brain
  49. cerebellar peduncle
    one of three bundles of axons that attach each cerebellar hemisphere to the dorsal pons
  50. pons
    the region of the metencephalon rostral to the medulla, caudal to the midbrain, ventral to the cerebellum
  51. medulla oblongata
    • the most caudal portion of the brain
    • located in the myencephalon, immediately rostral to the spinal cord
  52. spinal cord
    cord of nervous tissue that extends caudally from the medulla
  53. spinal root
    a bundle of axons surrounded by connective tissue that occurs in pairs, which fuse and form a spinal nerve
  54. cauda equina
    a bundle of spinal roots located caudal to the end of the spinal cord
  55. dorsal root
    the spinal root that contains incoming (afferent) sensory fibers
  56. ventral root
    the spinal root that contains the outgoing (efferent) motor fibers
  57. spinal nerve
    the peripheral nerve attached to the spinal cord
  58. afferent axon
    an axon directed toaward the CNS (conveys sensory information)
  59. dorsal root ganglion
    a nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of afferent spinal nerve neurons
  60. efferent axon
    • an axon directed away from the central nervous system
    • conveys motor commands to muscles and glands
  61. psychopharmacology
    study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior
  62. site of action
    a location at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, thus affecting some biochemical processes of these cells
  63. therapeutic index
    the ratio between the dose that productes the desired effect in 50% of the animals and the dose that produces the toxic effect in 50% of the animals
  64. affinity
    the readiness with which two molecules join together
  65. antagonist
    drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell
  66. agonist
    a drug that facilitates the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell
  67. direct agonist
    a drug that binds with and activates a receptor
  68. direct antagonist
    • aka receptor blocker, a drug that binds with a receptor but does not activate it
    • prevents the natural ligand from binding with the receptor
  69. noncompetitive binding
    binding of a drug to a site on a receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand
  70. PHA-L
    • Phaseolus vulgaris leukagglutinin
    • a protein derived from kidney beans that is taken up by dendrites and cell bodies and carried to the ends of axons
    • used in anterograde labeling
  71. immunocytochemical method
    a histological labeling method that uses radioactive antibodies (or antibodies bound to dye molecules) to indicate the presenc of particular proteins or peptides