Paramedic CH 10 Drug Classes

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Paramedic CH 10 Drug Classes
2012-10-22 02:33:15
Paramedic 10 Drug Classes

Paramedic CH 10 Drug Classes
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  1. Beta-Agonist Medication
    • Primarily Treat acute bronchospasm associated with asthma and COPD.
    • Beta-2 receport sites cause muscle relaxation and bronchodilation when activated by beta-2 chemicals.
    • EPI and NOREPI are natural occuring beta-2
    • Beta-agonist can be selective effecting only beta-2 or nonselective effecting beta-1 and 2
  2. Examples of Beta-Agonist Medications?
    • Albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil) is a selective beta-2 agonist
    • Levalbuterol is similar to albuterol but doesn't have the reported effects on the beta-1
  3. Mucokinetic and Bronchodilator Medications
    • May use Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent) when treating with bronchospasm or reactive airway disease.
    • Antagonizes muscarinic recepotrs, causing dilation and decreased mucous in upper and lower airways.
  4. Corticosteroids
    • reduce airway inflammation and improve oxygenation and ventilation.
    • Immunsuppressant and can alter a vast array of endocrine functions.
  5. Types of corticosteroids
    Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol), Dexamethasone (Decadron), prednisone
  6. Antidysrthythmic Medications
    • Improve or correct abnormalities in a patients cardiac rhythm.
    • Many that can improve rhythm can also cause dysrhythmias and have large adverse effects.
  7. Class I Antidysrhythmic Medications
    • Slow the movement of Sodium through channels in cardial cells.
    • Procainamide (Pronestyl) Class IA suppress activity of ectopic foci and slow QRS and QT intervals.
    • Lidocaine Class IB Blocks sodium channels in the Purkinje Fibers and ventricle, resolving various ventricular dysrhythmias and suppress ectopic foci
  8. Class II Antidysrhythmic Medication Beta-Adrenergic blocking agent
    • 2nd major class off antidysrhythmic.
    • Competitively inhibit catecholamine (epi and norepi) activation of beta receptor sites.
    • Metoprolol (Lopressor) is a beta blocking agent used to reduce HR during myocardial ischemia and certain atrial tachycardias. Decrease HR
  9. Class III Antidysrhythmic Medications
    • Increase duration of Phase 1, 2, and 3 of the cardiac cycle.
    • extends cellular action potential, prolong refractory periods, treat atrial or ventricular tachycardias.
    • Amiodarone (Cordarone)
  10. Class IV Antidysrhythmic Medications/Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Have a variety of potential uses. IE lower BP control HR. May inhibit uterine contractions during preterm labor, management of migraines, and cardiomyopathy.
    • Verapamil (Calan) and Diltiazem (Cardizem) are two calcium channel blockers control HR w/ atrial fibrilation or atrial flutter.
  11. Class V Unnamed class Antidysrhythmic
    • Adenosine is the only one.
    • Used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
  12. Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist
    Alpha blockers! prevent endogenous catecholamines from reaching alpha receptors. Lower BP (Diastolic) and decrease systemic vascular resistance.
  13. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors)
    • alter function of the renin-angiotensin system in the body. This system causes vasoconstriction and fluid retention in response to hypotention or hypoperfusion.
    • BP reduced and cardiac afterload is decreased w/out much effect on HR
    • *CHF patients
  14. Anticholinergic Medications
    • Used for several prehospital purposes.
    • Atropine used to treat bradycardia inhibits action of acetylcholine at postganglionic sites.
  15. Catecholamines and Sympathomimetics
    • Catecholamines are naturally occuring chemicals in the body that stimulate receptor sites in the sympathetic nervous system. Epi, Norepi, and dopamine.
    • Sympathomimetics- not found naturally in body. These chemicals mimic natural occuring catecholamines. Amphetamines, albuterol, phenylephrine, and cocaine have sympathomimetic properties.
  16. Direct Vasodilator Medications
    • Management of uncontrolled hypertension, CHF, MI, cardiac ischemia, and cardiogenic shock.
    • Act on arteries, veins, or both, vascular muscle relax and dilation.
    • Nitro and Sodium nitroprusside (Nipride)
  17. Diuretic Medications
    • Correct volume overload, manage CHF, imporove respirations experiencing pulmonary edema.
    • Furosemide
  18. Anticoagulant Medications
    • Impair the function of clotting or coagulation chemials in the bloodstream.
    • Dissolve blood clots
    • Heparin and Enoxaparin (Lovenox) enhance antithrombin III to inhibit blood coagulation.
  19. Antiplatelet Medications
    • reduce platelet aggregation, prevent new thrombus formation or extension of existing thrombus.
    • Asprin, Clopidogrel (Plavix), Ticlopidine (Ticlid)
  20. Fibrinolytics
    • dissolve blood clots in arteries and veins. Treat Acute MI in prehospital setting and strokes.
    • Serious ability to cause hemorrhaging.
  21. Analgesic Medications
    • Stimulate opiod receptors in the body to relieve or prevent pain associated with an injury, medical condition, or medically related proceedure.
    • Morphine Sulfate, Fentanyl
  22. Opiate Antagonist Medication
    Naloxone opiod receptor antagonist used to reverse effects of excessive opiod chemicals in the body
  23. Phenytoin and Fosphenytoin
    • Phenytoin (Dilantin) and Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) to prevent seizure activity.
    • May see them in head injury, intracranial hemorrhage.
  24. Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonist
    • H2 blocker decrease acid secretion in the stomach.
    • Ranitidine (Zantac) Cimetidine (Tagamet) and Famotidine (Pepcid)
  25. Antiemetic Medications
    • Used for several reasons. Prevent nausea and vomiting in patients.
    • Promethazine (Phenegran), Metoclopramide (Reglan)

    5-HT3 receptors are present in the brain and GI tract
  26. Octreotide
    • Sandostatin may see it during interfacility transports.
    • hormone that inhibits serotonin release, casing decreade secretion of insulin, glucagon, growth hormone.
    • *Esophageal varices