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3 ways news media can contribute to the democratic process (Ivengar)
- 1) provide a forum for candidates and political parties to debate their qualifications for office before a national audience.
- 2) contribute to informed citizenship by providing a variety of perspectives on the important issues of the day
- 3) serve as watchdog questioning actions of government officials on behalf of the citizens.
What two factors affect media performance? (Ivengar)
- 1) regulatory policy (FCC)
- 2) market forces: US many outlets are privately owned. To be profitable the market must deliver more entertainment.
What does the political significance of media programming depend on (Ivengar)
the strength of political parties
What caused the shift from media politics to party politics (Ivengar)
- 1. population growth
- 2. candidate nominee process: before 1968 the delegate selection/presidential was controlled by state and local party organizations.
- --so instead of cultivating paty activists and leaders, candidates had to appeal directly to the public
- 3. technology
How does American media differ from other media systems (2 ways): (Ivengar)
- 1) autonomy from gov
- 2) Scope of private ownership
What 3 factors help explain the change in tv news toward a more journalist centered journalism? (Hallin)
- 1. The evolution of television know how
- 2. The weakening of political consensus and authority during the last 20 years
- 3. changes in the economics of the industry
Hallin found a correlation between ______ and shorter sound bites over time?
Horse-race journalism and sound bite news.
The Hostile Media Phenomenon: (Ivengar)
People who tend to hold strong political views are especially likely to view the news as biased.
What is Gresham’s law of news? (Ivengar)
That negative information always drives out positive information.
Two influences on what is reported (Ivengar)
- 1) market forces
- 2) organizational processes and journalistic norms
Accessibility refers to (Ivengar)
the ability to cover stories in a timely fashion.
What is pack journalism? (Ivengar)
The tendency of high prestige news organizations to define the daily agenda. Should be top-down, but sometimes reversed.
Modern journalism relies on what two values: (Ivengar)
objectivity and autonomy.
What did Kull's study explore:
attempts to explain the phenomenon of misperceptions, administration statements and media reporting.
Kull focused on three misperceptions
- Links between Iraq and al Qaeda
- World Public Opinion
What news station did Kull find to prompt the most misconceptions?
What did Kull find in terms of misperceptions in portion to the attention to news?
- NO data, except moderately more misperceptions the more news one watched.
- political attitudes play a role in misperception
What was the most powerful factor in misconceptions?
Political attitudes…those willing to vote for Bush.
What was the second most powerful factor in misconception?
Kull says that the obvious explanation is that people just don’t pay enough attention to news. True or False?
What was the most ‘worrisome’ conclusion of Kull’s article?
The administration, by giving incorrect information, can gain support for policies that may not be consistent with the preferences held by the majority of Americans
New media and new techonology has done 2 things? (Ivengar)
Transformed the behavior of individual information seekers and the strategies used by politicians to reach their supporters.
What could a result be if people turn to only biased but favored providers? (Ivengar)
there could be a less informed and more polarized electorate.
Some positives technology brings to the election? (Ivengar)
- Users of media can bypass media treatment of campaign and access information that can help them
- Technology has leveled the campaign playing field.
What are the three main theories in which people choose what political communications they'll choose? (ivengar)
- 1. Attentive Public Theory
- 2. Partisan Polarization Theory
- 3. Issue Public Theory
What is the attentive public theory? (Ivengar)
People who are captivated by politics tune in while people who aren't tune out. People will tune into all news if it's captivating.
What is partisan polarization theory? (Ivengar)
People prefer info they find consistent with their beliefs.
What is issue public theory? (Ivengar)
people seek out info about subjects that are particularly important to them and tune out about other subjects. This has more evidence than partisan polarization.
Media based campaigns take place on two stages: (Ivengar)
- free media
- paid media
- ****In the case of nonpresidential elections, paid media dominates.
What are 4 ways andidates try to focus news coverage on subjects they consider advantageous? (Ivengar)
- 1. avoid media feeding frenxies that arise when they demonstrate a personal flaw
- 2. hope their opponent makes a major misstatement of fact
- 3. set low standards so anything above baseline is surprising to press
- 4. regulate media access based on standing in the polls--if they fall behind, open door policy, if they are ahead, limit press
What are 4 strategies candidates use in designing advertising campaigns? (Ivengar)
- 1. Aim ads at voters whose preferences may be picotal to the outcome of the race--voters in states that are competitive.
- 2. heavy reliance on negative/attack advertising
- 3. use direct mail to target voters--especially important in low income housing
- 4. emphasize issues that give an advantage over their opponent. Issue ownership.
- 5. Wedge issues
What are wedge issues?
- Wedge issues are designed to pit groups against each other, to appeal to voters' sense of group identity.
- ex. 2004. gay marriage
- 2008 mosque statement in NY by president obama
What is issue ownership? (Ivengar)
Refers to the fact that the public considers each party to be more capable on different issues. Candidates campaign on these issues because their message is more credible when consistent with the stereotype of the party.
What does Stroud's study investigate?
whether different mediums are more likely to inspire selective exposure.
Which four mediums did Stroud's study investigate?
- political talk radio
- cable news
- political websites
Stroud's study showed that people's...?
political disposition motivated their media selections.
Partisan selective exposure is less a matter of which medium one uses and more a matter of...
the political context. i.e. whether it's an election period.
What is the first link of election news (Patterson)
1. Journalistic value and political values are at odds with one another, which results in a news agenda that misrepresents what is at stake in the choice among the candidates.
What is the second link of themes in election news (Patterson)?
2. Journalistic values, though supposedly neutral, introduce an element of random partisanship into the campaign, which coincidentally works to the advantage of one side or another.
What is the third link of themes in election news (Patterson)?
Election news, rather than serving to bring candidates and voters together, drives a wedge between them.
Why do voters campared to press ask different questions?
In history the precision of schemas has changed how so?
election news --> governing schema --> game schema
Thus, policy schema decreases while game schema increases.
What is indexing? (Ivengar)
- The press can represent an adversiarial posture only when opponents of gov policy outnumber proponents.
- adjusting coverage of an issue to the level of agreement and debate about that issue among policy elites
Lippman's Deductions (4)
- 1. Public opinion is not just affected by the media, it is created by the media.
- 2. Propaganda is an attempt to substitute one social reality for another.
- 3. In order to understand political behavior, we must understand both the info available, and the filters (stereotypes) through which it is passed.
- 4. We act based on what we perceive to be real, but our actions have consequences in the real world.
What are four models of newsmaking?
- 1. The mirror model: Reporters of objective fact
- 2. The professional model: Norms, ethics of journalism, public advocacy
- 3. The organizational model: Profit seeker
- 4. The partisan model: News outlets represent specific interests
What are three normative functions of press in a democratic society?
- 1. Debate: Provide an unbiased forum for conflicting views
- 2. Inform opinion: Present a variety of perspectives and factual information
- 3. Watchdog: Policing officials’ behavior
What are characteristics of the Partisan Press?
- The press as partisan mouthpiece w more attacks on opposing party
- Circulation is small--knowledge gap is wide
The commerical media era characteristics?
- 1830 to 1880
- Penny Press--increasing circulation, tech advances in printing.
- Commercialization-profit motive enters
- mass audience triggers party formation
- civil war correspondence
Yellow Journalism Era
- sensationalism sells
- publishers as critics, not partisans
- newspapers and racial conflict
- pulitzer and hearst
- Muckrakers crusade against corruption
The lap dog and objectivity era characteristics?
- Free from opinion or bias
- protect and inform the public
- supporting the establishment
Watchdog journalism characterists
- a more critical approach to politics
- Vietnam and Tet
Why did the lapdog era happen?
- Significant foreign threat
- Long term relationships between journalists and sources
- press dominated by working class white men
Who were the lapdog journalists?
- The boys on the bus
- mostly white men
What era put forth many journalists as social activists?
Yellow Journalism Era
The modern era characteristics?
- 1980s to present
- Interpretive coverage
- personal lives no longer off limits (Gary Hart, Monkey Business)
- scandel reigns
Wat did Petrocik focus on?
Voters who are influenced to vote based on issue ownership
what are constraints on journalism?
- 1. self imposed constraints:
- 2. instiutional rules: informal
- 3. Economic
- 4. Legal constraints
What are self imposed constraints in terms of journalistic behavior?
- 1. objectivity
- 2. Fairness
- 3. Reform-minded
What is the best predictor of foreign affairs coverage?
- BCC--Population Size
What are institutional rules (3) that constrain journalistic behavior?
- 1. Appropriateness
- 2. Acessibility
- 3. Competitiveness
What are economic factors that constrain journalistic behavior?
- 1. Ratings -- a share and HUT (households using tv)
- 2. Local v national news
What are four workways of the press?
- 1. Official news sources
- 2. the beat system
- 3. Gatekeeping
- 4. News Bureaus
When you shift from an elite driven to a mass media driven process for primaries, you lose (3) things:
- 1. Permanence
- 2. Lack of Choesiveness
- 3. Lack of Responsibility
The different schemas for voters, press and politicians:
- voters: issues
- press: gain/what gains political power, also game
- Politicians: governing schema
What are 5 ways the internet differs from old technologies?
- 1. fundraising significantly changes
- 2. hear more points of view
- 3. reduced information cost: decreased accountability
- 4. Market segmentation
- 5. citizen as information producer
What is the BCRA?
Bipartisan campaign reform act
What were 6 statutes within the BCRA?
- 1. Bans soft money contributions to national political parties
- 2. Increases individual contribution limits
- 3. Leaves PAC contrib limits unchanged
- 4. Bans corporations including nonprofits and labor unions use of electioneering ads
- 5. In person rule
- 6. no issue group electioneering within 60 days of the election
What is the Tillman Act of 1907 (Progressive Era)
- banned contributions from corporations and banks
- but had no enforcement mechanisms
What is the FECA?
- Federal Elections Capaign Act 1971
- –Tried to implement enforceable limits on:
- Size of contributions
- Amount of spending
- Public financing
- sought expansion of the mass primary
- reducing political appointments
- introduction to the austrialian ballot, secret ballot
What 5 values do journalists have?
- 1. Ethnocentrism
- 2. Altruistic democracy-egaltarianism
- 3. Responsible capitalism
- 4. Individualism-protestant work ethic
- 5. Moderation
What kind of news does the U.S. system create? (5 things)
- Timely (the CNN effect)
What does Buckley v. Valeo comprise of?
- –Says most of FECA is a violation of 1st amend.
- –Upholds individual expenditure limits and disclosure rules.
- Strikes down candidate expenditure limits
- Strikes down limits by independent groups.
What are the effects of issue ads?
- •The concern is that they can:
- Set the campaign agenda
- More negative, shelter sponsor from backlash
- Seen as more credible
- Prime issues more powerfully
- Boost issue knowledge
- They do not demobilize