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Refers to actually producing (through speaking, signing, or writing) language to others.
Refers to understanding what others say (or sign or write).
_____ are systems for representing thoughts, feelings, and knowledge and communicating them to others.
Language processing involves a substantial degree of functional localization in the brain.
Damage to _____ area, near the motor cortex, is associated with difficulties in producing speech (expressive aphasia).
Damage to ____area, which is near the auditory cortex, is linked to difficulties with meaning (receptive aphasia).
Brain damage in localized areas of left hemisphere results in language impairment
Sometime between age 5 and puberty, language acquisition becomes much more difficult and ultimately less successful.
Critical period hypothesis
distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies and very young children.
Infant directed talk (IDT) "motherese"
sharing of a common focus of attention by two or more people
established when baby and parent are looking at and reacting to same thing in the world
helps establish joint attention among infants older than 9 months of age, and by age 2, children use pointing to direct the attention of another person
the characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonational patterns.
rules about structure and sequence of speech sounds
vocabulary- words and word combos for concepts
syntax- rules for sentences
morphology- grammatical markers
smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning.
tendency to perceive as identical (or part of same category) a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class.
Categorical speech perception
the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating.
Voice onset time
The baby is taught to turn his head to the sound source whenever he hears a change from one sound to another (e.g., ba to da).
Conditioned head-turn procedure
an element of prosody; 9-month-old infants pay more attention to lists of words that follow the stress pattern of their native
language (e.g., English – first syllables stressed, “often,” “second.”)
in any language, certain sounds are more likely to appear together than are others.
At around 6 to 8 weeks of age, infants begin producing drawn out vowel sounds (“oooo”).
Between 6 and 10 months of age, infants begin to babble by repeating strings of sounds comprising a consonant followed by a
what does a particular word refer to; the associating of words and meaning.
Problem of reference
children expect a novel word to refer to a whole object, not a part.
also called the novel name–nameless category principle) children expect that a given entity will have only one name.
Mutual exclusivity assumption
is the process of rapidly learning a new word.
Infants show that they can learn new words, but only for those objects that they found interesting.
is a strategy in which children use the grammatical structure of whole sentences to figure out meaning.
The period of one-word utterances is referred to as the________,
because the child typically expresses a “whole phrase” with a single word.
The set of strategies that young children enlist in beginning to speak.
Style of Acquisition
Children’s first sentences are two-word utterances that have been described as _____ speech because nonessential elements are
speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular.
The content of each child’s turn having little or nothing to do with what the other child has just said.
proposes that the human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning.
The modularity hypothesis
knowing that only certain word combinations are acceptable as sentences.
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