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What hormones are produced by the thyroid?
- Thyroxine (T4)
- Triiodothyronine (T3)
What hormones are produced by the parathyroid?
parathyroid hormone (PTH) aka paparathormone
What is the difference between Endocrine glands and exocrine glands?
Endocrine glands do not have ducts and the hormones are secreted directly into the blood or target cell. Exocrine glands secrete their hormones through ducts.
What are normal affects of aging effects on the endocrine system?
- Decreased hormone production and secretion
- Altered hormone metabolism and biologic activity
- Decreased responsiveness of target tissues to hormones
- Alterations in circadian rhythms.
What are the 6 prevelent clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism/Graves Disease/Toxic Goiter?
- Heat intolerance
- Dyspnea r/t increased O2 consumption
- Palpitations, tachycardia
- Fatigue, insomnia
- Fluid loss
- Exophthalmus (Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball or eyeballs)
What are the expected diagnostic studies for hyperthyroidism/Graves disease/Toxic Goiter?
- T3 & T4 levels increased
- TSH levels decreased if target organ is cause
- TRH suppression test
- Thyroid nuclear scan
- Thyroid antibody studies
Why are beta blockers given to patients with Hyperthyroidism? What is a common beta blocker given?
- To prevent palpatations
- Inderal (propranolol)
What hormones are produced by the Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)? (7)
- Growth hormone (GH) or Somatotropin (STH)
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- Gonadotropic hormones
- ---- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
- ---- Luteinizing hormone (LH)
- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
What hormones are produced by the Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)?
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
What are the main signs of Thyroid Storm?
- Fever-hyperthermia to 105
- Severe Tachycardia
- Severe Hypertension
What hormones are produced by the Adrenal Medulla?
- Epinephrine (adrenaline)
- Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
What are the hormones produced by the Adrenal Cortex?
- Corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, hydrocortisone)
- Androgens (e.g., testosterone, androsterone) and estrogen
- Mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone)
What are the hormones produced by the Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)?
- Insulin (from beta cells)
- Amylin (from beta cells)
- Glucagon (from alpha cells)
- Pancreatic polypeptide
Cortisol levels rise early in the day and decline toward evening. This is an example of
- Rhythms of secretions originate in brain structures. A common physiologic rhythm is the circadian rhythm, in which a hormone level fluctuates predictably during a 24-hour period.
Which is a main advantage of a 24-hour urine collection done for hormone levels?
Short-term fluctuations are eliminated
- The major advantage of a 24-hour urine sample is that the short-term fluctuations in hormone levels seen in plasma samples are eliminated
What is Laryngeal Stridor?
harsh, vibratory sound occurs during inspiration and expiration as a result of edema of the laryngeal nerve.
What are the clinical manifestations of Hyperparathyroidism?
Hint* Moans, Groans, Stones, & Bones
- Muscle weakness, fatigue
- Increased need for sleep
- Anorexia, constipation
- Kidney stones
- Emotional disorders
- Mental changes
Condition of excessive secretion of growth hormone
Condition of overproduction of ADH
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Condition of underproduction of ADH
Diabetes Insipidus (DI)
Conditions that involves a decrease in one or more of the pituitary hormones
Autoimmune disease of thyroid enlargement and excessive thyroid hormone secretion
Condition of sustained increase in synthesis and release of thyroid hormones
Syndrome of hypermatabolism resulting in excess t3, t4, or both
Rare acute condition in which all hyperthyroid manifestations are heightened
Thyrotoxic crisis (Thyroid Storm)
Condition inadequate circulating parathyroid hormone
Condition of excess aldosterone secretion