EmbryoFA

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Author:
docdee
ID:
179038
Filename:
EmbryoFA
Updated:
2012-10-24 19:14:05
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usmlemix
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embryo
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  1. FGF gene
    • lengthening of limbs by mitosis of the mesoderm
    • apical end
  2. Sonic hedgehog gene
    • Base of limbs
    • Patterning of AP axis
  3. The epiblast forms in week 2. What does it give rise to?
    Primitive streak: intraembryonic mesoderm and part of the endoderm
  4. What forms the anal canal below and above the pectinate line
    • Below: ectoderm
    • Above: endoderm
  5. What forms odontoblasts, bones of the skull, pia and arachnoid?
    NC cells
  6. What lines the thymus, parathyroid, and thyroid follicular cells?
    • Endoderm
    • (parafollicular cells of the thyroid are from NC)
  7. Malformation vs. Deformation in organ development
    • malformation: during embryonic period (3-8 weeks)
    • deformation: after embronic period
  8. Agenesis vs. Aplasia
    • Agenesis: absent organ due to absent primordial tissue
    • Aplasia: absent organ with primordial tissue
    • (hypoplasia = incomplete organ with primordial tissue)
  9. Aminoglycosides on fetus
    warfarin on fetus
    • CN VIII toxicity
    • Bone deformities
  10. Cocaine during pregnancy
    Smoking during pregnancy
    Vitamin A over-tox
    • Placental abruption, vasospasm, fetal addiction
    • Pre-term labor, ADHD
    • Spontaneous abortions and birth defects
  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome mechanism
    Inhibition of cell migration
  12. Fraternal twins embryo
    Identical twins
    Identical twins with cord entanglement and sharing of yolk sac
    Conjoined twins
    • Dichrorion, diamniotic (0-4 days)
    • Monochorion, diamniotic (4-8 days) 75%
    • Mono, Mono (8-12 days)
    • Mono, Mono (> 13 days)
  13. Fetal and maternal placental components
    • Fetal: chorionic villi
    • 1. cytotrophoblast¬†
    • 2. synctio - makes hCG (like LH) and tells corpus luteum to make progesterone during 1st trimester

    • Maternal:¬†
    • 1. decidua basalis (from endometrium)
    • ** absence = placental accretia **
  14. Failure of the vitelline duct to close
    • 1. Vitelline fistula = meconium from the umbilicus
    • 2. Meckels diverticulum = ectopic gastric mucosa
  15. Failure of urachus to close
    Patent urachus (urachus = remnant of the allantois) = pee out of the umbilicus
  16. Bulbus cordis gives rise to?
    Smooth part of the ventricles
  17. Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein
    SVC
  18. Embryo of PFO
    Excessive reabsorption of septum primum and/or septum secundem
  19. When does fetal erythropoeisis occur in liver and spleen?
    • Liver: 6-30 weeks
    • Spleen: 9-28 weeks
  20. 1st part of the aortic arch
    2nd part of aortic arch
    3rd part of aortic arch
    • maxillary artery (br. of external carotid)
    • stapedial and hyoid a.
    • common carotid a.
  21. 4th part of aortic arch
    6th part of aortic arch
    • 4th: aortic arch, prox part of right subclavian a.
    • - right recurrent pharnygeal n.

    • 6th: ductus arteriosus, prox part of pulmonary a
    • - left recurrent pharyngeal n.
  22. Formation of brachial cyst (lateral side of neck)
    Persistent cervical sinus (from 2nd-4th clefts)
  23. Derivative of 1st brachial pouch
    • Middle ear cavity, eustachain tube, mastoid air cells
    • (external auditory meatus from 1st brachial cleft)
  24. Failure of fusion of maxillary and medial nasal processes
    Cleft lip
  25. Failure of fusion of lateral palatine processes, median palatine and nasal septum
    cleft palate
  26. Lateral fold closure defect in the abdomen
    Omphalocele, Gastrochisis
  27. Caudal fold closure defect in the abdomen
    Bladder exystrophy
  28. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic atresia
    Cause?
    Vascular accident (apple peel atresia)
  29. TE fistula sx and associations
    • vomiting upon feeding, cyanosis, choking
    • cannot pass NG tube in the stomach, polyhydramnios, pneumonitis
    • Air bubble on x-ray
  30. Annular pancreas
    Ventral pancreatic duct circles the 2nd part of the duodenum, causing duodenal narrowing
  31. Ventral pancreatic bud gives rise to what structures
    uncinate process + main pancreatic duct (wirsung)
  32. Metanephric mesenchyme gives rise to?
    glomerulus, renal tubules upto DCT
  33. Ureteric bud of kidney gives rise to what structures
    ureters, pelvis, collecting ducts, calyces
  34. Potter's syndrome is a defect due to malformation in what structure
    Ureteric bud
  35. Horseshoe kidney is associated with what sydrome
    Turners
  36. Mullerian inhibitory factor develops from what cells. Lack of this factor in males presents as?
    • Sertoli cells
    • Male internal and external genitalia, female internal
  37. Genital tubercle gives rise to what structures
    • Clitoris -- Glans penis
    • Vestibular bulbs -- Corpus cavernosum and spongiosum
  38. Urogenital sinus give rise to what structures
    • Prostate gland -- Skene glands
    • Bulbourethral glands -- Bartholin glands¬†
  39. Urogenital folds gives rise to what structures
    Ventral shaft of the penis (penile urethra) -- labia minora
  40. Defect of hypospadias
    Defect of epispadias
    • Failure of urethral folds to close
    • Faulty position of genital tubercle
  41. Function of gubernaculum
    Female remnant homologous
    • Anchors testes in the scrotum
    • Ovarian ligament + round ligament of uterus

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