PSYC of G 10/3

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amourey
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179116
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PSYC of G 10/3
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2012-10-22 18:17:59
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PSYC 10
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PSYC of G 10/3
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  1. theory
    • organizes and explains observations of various phenomena
    • can never be proved, only supported
  2. hypothesis
    • testable predictions
    • provides ability to falsify theory
  3. gender identity
    individual identification of self as female or male
  4. gender role
    a set of socially significant activities associated with being male or female
  5. gender stereotype
    the beliefs about the characteristics associated with, and the activities appropriate to, men or women
  6. sexual orientation
    • gender preference of a mate
    • lesbian, gay, bisexual
  7. theoretical constructs about gender
    • gender identity
    • gender role
    • gender stereotypes
    • sexual orientation
  8. characteristics of a good theory
    • clarity
    • completeness
    • coherence
    • parsimony
    • testability
    • diversity
  9. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
    • first theory about gender
    • believed structure of human mind shaped personality
    • id, ego, superego (ego ideal and conscience)
  10. stages of personality development
    • preoedipal stages - same in both genders
    • - oral: infancy - id
    • - anal: toddler - ego
    • phallic stage: preschool - superego
    • latency stage: elementary school
    • genital stage: puberty
  11. resolution of phallic stage: boys
    • sexual attraction toward mother
    • -> hostility toward father
    • -> castration anxiety
    • -> identification with father
    • = masculine identification, strong superego, contempt for women
  12. resolution of phallic stage: girls
    • sees self as inferior
    • -> penis envy
    • -> blames mother
    • -> desire to give birth replaces penis envy
    • -> desire for child
    • -> sexual attraction to father
    • -> father unattainable
    • -> reforges feminine identification
    • = feminine identification, masochism, concern with sexual attractiveness, desire for child, sense of inferiority, contempt for women, weak superego
  13. psychosexual maturation
    identification with same sex parent
  14. masochism
    • wanting to have sex
    • wanting to menstrate
    • wanting to give birth
  15. phallic stage importance
    superego stage
  16. evaluation of Freud's theory
    • accepts childhood sexuality
    • accepts homosexuality, bisexuality as natural (though not typical) outcomes
    • phallocentric
    • difficult to subject to empirical testing
  17. Horney's Feminine Psychology
    • theory based on envy towards parents
    • presented infront of Freud
    • challenged Freud (it is social & culture, not biological)
    • moved from biological inferiority to cultural and social factors that devalue women
    • reconceptualized penis envy as womb envy
    • gynocentric
    • foundation for feminist psychoanalytic theory
    • addressed homosexuality
    • advocated cross-cultural research
    • not subject to empirical testing
    • men feel inferior because they cant reproduce
  18. phallocentric
    male focus
  19. gynocentric
    female focus
  20. Chodorow's Feminist Psychoanalytic Theory
    • fusion of childhood identification and social cultural factors
    • men's sphere (public) and women's sphere (private)
    • powerful emotions directed toward primary caregivers (women)
    • process of individuation at ages 3 to 5 (more difficult for boys, involves maternal devaluation)
  21. process of individuation
    • girls mimic mom
    • boys have to "not be like mom"
    • boys have to be "little men"
    • boys have to control their emotions
    • boys have to devalue women
  22. Pleck's Gender Role Strain Paradigm
    • emphasis on sociocultural factors that defind gender roles
    • nature of gender roles: contradictory and inconsistent
    • violation of gender roles leads to personal/interpersonal consequences
    • looks & focuses on male gender role
    • similar to Freud (boys identify with fathers and girls identify with mothers)
  23. consequences/examples of gender role strain
    • role violations are more severe for men
    • "relationships are the female's job"
    • work vs. home roles
    • some aspects of roles psychologically dysfunctional (non expression of emotion; extreme passivity, nonassertiveness in relationships)
  24. results of male gender role discrepancy
    • discrepancy results from failure to conform to gender roles
    • hypermasculinity: example of overconformity
    • masculinity ideologies: internalization of male gender role
  25. examples of masculine ideologies
    • achievement motivation
    • risky behaviors
    • emotional control
    • antifeminity/homophobia
  26. evaluation of Pleck's argument, focus and research
    • though Pleck argues for diversity in masculinities, critics assert focus on European American middle class
    • basis of considerable research on adolescent boys high-risk behaviors and substance abuse
    • little cross-cultural research, but some research with American multi-ethnic samples
  27. Darwinian principles
    • members of species compete for resources
    • individual differences in variability (variability hypothesis)
    • success in reproduction evidence of fitness
    • through process of natural selection adaptive attributes become more common in gene pool
  28. parental investment theory
    • biological
    • sex differences in parental investment
    • differential parental investment result in different sexual strategies
  29. sexual selection theory
    • evolution of attributes that provide reproductive advantage
    • intra/intersexual competition
    • result in different sexual strategies
  30. stategic pluralism theory
    • desirable males opt for short-term mating strategies; undesirable males opt for long-term (or not at all)
    • women likely to benefit from either short-term or long-term mating (age, fertility, personal circumstances)
  31. evaluation of evolutionary theories
    • considers gender roles to result from biological x environment interaction
    • critics say circular reasoning, neglect role of culture
    • whereas considerable cross-cultural difference is supportive, reanalysis of data fail to be supportive

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