BIO 115 Fall 2012 Chap 7 & 8

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BIO 115 Fall 2012 Chap 7 & 8
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2012-10-22 17:46:09
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BIO 115 Fall 2012 Chap 7 & 8
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  1. ___ helps the filiments slide apart.
    Calcium
  2. ___ filiament has 2 strands and is actin.
    Thin
  3. ____ filament is myosin.
    Thick
  4. I bands are ___
    thick filament
  5. A bands are ____
    Thick and Thin Filament
  6. H zone is in the center of the ___ ___.
    A band
  7. When the muscle contracts the ___ ___ and the ___ ___ disapear.  This is called the ___ ___ Theory.
    • H zone
    • I band
    • sliding filament
  8. the two systems of the Neuromuscular junction are ___ and ___.
    • Nervous
    • Muscular
  9. The ___ ___ has a neurotransmitter called the acetylcholine.
    axon terminal
  10. The ___ ___ is a gap seperating the axon from the ___.
    • synaptic cleft
    • sarcolemma
  11. The ___ reticulum is the ___ reticulum.
    • sarcoplasmic
    • endoplasmic
  12. ___ run the length of the muscle fiber.
    myofibrils
  13. Muscles acquire new ATP by... (3)
    • creatine phosphate breakdown
    • cellular respiration
    • fermentation
  14. ___ ___ occurs when muscles use ___ to suppy ATP.
    • oxygen debt
    • fermentation
  15. a ___ ___ contracts completely or not at all
    muscle fiber
  16. The entire muscle shows degrees of ___
    contraction
  17. a ___ ___ is a contraction that lasts a fraction of a second.
    muscle twitch
  18. ___ is a muscle relaxed even though stimulation continues.
    Fatigue
  19. ___ ___ is one nerve fiber together with all the muscle fibers.
    Motor Unit
  20. ___ is when the nervous stimulation increases more and more motor units to join in.
    recruitment
  21. ___ ___ is when some muscle fibers are always contracted
    Muscle tone
  22. muscle tone is important for ___
    posture
  23. The 3 types of muscle are...
    • smooth
    • cardiac
    • skeletal
  24. ___ ___ is in the walls of hollow organs and blood vessels.
    Smooth muscle
  25. Smooth muscle contracts ___ and are ___fibers.
    • involuntary
    • uninucleated
  26. Smoothe muscles have ___ cells, they are ___ ends.
    • cylindrical
    • pointed
  27. ___ ___ forms the heart wall.
    Cardiac muscle
  28. Cardiac muscle fibers are... (4)
    • uninucleated
    • striated
    • tubular
    • branched
  29. ___ ___ do not require outside nervous stimulation
    Cardiac muscles
  30. Skeletal muscle fibers are... (3)
    • multinucleated
    • tubular
    • striated
  31. ___ ___ are voluntary.
    Skeletal muscles
  32. ___ surrounds each muscle fiber (cell)
    endomysiom
  33. ___ surround bundles of muscle fibers (fasicale)
    Perimyslom
  34. ___ surrounds the entire muscle, becomes part of fascia.
    Epimysium
  35. ___ ___ extend from epimyslom to form tendons.
    collagen fibers
  36. Sarcolemma is
    plasma membrane
  37. Sarcoplasm is
    cytoplasm
  38. ___ ___ are formed by the sarcolemma penetrating into the cell.
    T tubules
  39. ___ is increased muscle contraction
    Summation
  40. ___ ___ is maximal sustained contraction
    Tetanic contraction
  41. ___ is a decrease in muscle size
    Atrophy
  42. ___ is an increase in muscle size
    hypertrophy
  43. Slow twitch fibers are Type ___ fibers.  they have many ___.  They are dark in color because they have ___.  They are the ___ in size.
    • one
    • mitochondria
    • myoglobin
    • smallest
  44. Intermediate-twitch fibers are type ___ fibers. They are ___ then Type I fibers.   They are used for moderate activity like ___, ___, and ___.
    • IIa
    • faster
    • jogging
    • walking fast
    • riding a bike
  45. Fast-twitch fibers are type ___ fibers.  They are ___, don't need oxygen.  They are designed for ___.  They have little to none ___ and ___.  They can also ___ easily.
    • IIb
    • anaerobic
    • strength
    • mitochondria
    • myoglobin
    • fatigue
  46. ___ is attachment of a muscle to the immovable bone
    origin
  47. ___ is attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves.
    insertion
  48. ___ ___ is a muscle that does most of the work in a movement
    Prime mover
  49. ___ are muscles that assist the prime mover.
    Synergist
  50. ___ are muscles that work opposite one another to bring about movement in opposite directions.
    antagonists
  51. The functions of the nervous system are... (3)
    • Sensory Input
    • Intergration
    • Motor Output
  52. ___ goes to the CNS
    afferent
  53. ___ leaves the CNS.
    efferent
  54. CNS stands for...
    central nervous system
  55. PNS stands for...
    Peripheral nervous system
  56. CNS contains the ___ and ___ ___
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
  57. PNS contains the ___ and ___ ___
    • cranial
    • spinal nerves
  58. in the ___ the glands and muscles react.
    efferent
  59. Somatic sensory nerves get signals from... (4)
    • skin
    • muscles
    • joints
    • special senses
  60. Visceral sensory nerves get signals from ___ ___
    body organs
  61. Somatic motor nerves send signals to ___ ___ and are ___.
    • skeletal muscles
    • voluntary
  62. autonomic motor nerves send signals to ___ ___, ___ ___, ___ and are ___.
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
    • glads
    • involuntary
  63. ___ ___ is "fight or flight"
    sympathetic division
  64. ___ ___ is "rest and digest"
    parasympathetic division
  65. ___ ___ contains nucleus and other organelles.
    cell body
  66. ___ receive signals from sensory receptors or other neurons
    dendrite
  67. ___ conducts nerve signals away from cell body
    Axon
  68. ___ are bundles of parallel axons in the PNS
    Nerve
  69. ___ are bundles of parallel axons in the CNS
    tract
  70. myelin in the PNS is formed by ___ ___.
    Schwann cells
  71. myelin in the CNS are formed by ___.
    oligodendrocytes
  72. ___ is lipid coating.
    myelin
  73. Motor neurons are ___ and take nerve info from CNS to ___, ___, and ___.
    • multipolar
    • muscles
    • organs
    • glands
  74. Sensory neurons are ___ and take info to ___.
    • unipolar
    • CNS
  75. Interneurons are ___ and are only in the ___.
    • multipolar
    • CNS

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