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what is stature?
adult stature (with age +sex) is vital part of biological profile provided by law enforcement when describing missing person, victim or assailant
what do we want to get when discussing stature?
best estimate of persons living height
offficial statutre (recorded by medical practitioners or military)
forensic stature - self reported, given by friends, relatives or from drivers license.
measurement of deceaced individual
problems with measured stature
incorrect technique (inter-observer error) e.g. measured with shoes or without
time of day for measurement (get shorter as day goes on due to compression of intervertebral discs and heel pads)
problems with forensic stature
people generally tend to overestimate their height.
- height changes over time
- -45+ lose height due to cartilage in joints wearing down
- -not finished growth when heing on drivers license recorded
problems with cadaver stature
- typical methods for cadaver measurement can add up to 5cm to stature estimate.
- --> gravity stretches the cadaver out.
-how should bones be measured? - problems
should physiological lenth or maximum length of femur be used?
max length only takes into consideration of one condyle for example
must be aware of proper measuring techniques
problems when measuring tibia?
should include or exclude medial malleoulus and intercondylar eminence?
secular change in height
--what should be considered as a reult
i.e modern populations are considerably taller on avg then populations in past
bone collections might now be representative of todays population
there is a correlation between height and gdp
anatomical method? (fully)
why was it originally developed?
who is it good for?
- best method to use if you can
- - orgiginally developed to identify french soldiers who died at mauthausen (concentration camp)
- - method based on 102 males
- -when tested , method found effective for femalesand other population groups.
how to use the anatomical method? (fully)
measure all skeletal components that contribute to height
- 1. cranial height (max legnth between bregma and baison)
- 2.vertebral column height (starting from C2, C3-7, thoracics, lumbards and first sacrum)
- 3. leg length - femur -use physiological length (to both condyles), tibia (including medial malleolus but excluding ..
- 4.foot height, max height of talus + calcaneus
Anatomical method - wha tto do with measurements?
add up to obtain a skeletal heights then use 1 or 2 equations depending if age is known or not to get living stature
age factor important because you change height with age
if sex is known what can we do with anatomical values
what do these values account for?
add extra variables for more accuracy
account for missing soft tissue that we have.
anatomical method (fully)
good- not population specific as differences in body proportions intrinsically built into methodology
bad -more time consuming and skeleton must be very well preserved (must have all bits)
Revised method vs fully
who revised it?
fully said estimate comes within 1 cm but Raxter found it was underestimated by 2.5 cm
revised +/- 4.5cm in 95% confidence
stature based on vertebral column (Tibbets)
- measured height of anterior vertebral bodies from C2-L5
- IN mm
developed different regression formulae for males and females - but can be used for people of all geographic groups (sex dependent, geographically independent)
males - 38% contirbute to total height
female - 41% contribute to total height
wha tis the most popular method of stature legnth?
based on what assumption
who collected the data? from where
Long bone length
based on observation that tall people= long arms and legs
Trotter and Gleser
From dead soldiers from the war (II) +korean war
stature based on long bone length
- Controversy on how tibia was measures
- --> eventually decided not to include medial malleous UNLIKE FULLYS METHOD
summary of TROTTER AND GLESSER data showed?
what is needed for these equations
which long bones give you best indication to height?
Strong relationship between length of long bones and stature
assymmetry between left and right very minor, so doesnt matter which side used to calculate stature
strong corrrelation between length of individual bones
sex and ancestry matter to equations
leg bones give best indication
what if we dont have long bones?
who did the measurement?
metacarpals and metatarsals can be used - but errors are much larger
- MEADOWS AND JANTZ
- -measured from bottom to tip (mm)
metatarsals measured in what units?
WHO STUDIED THIS
stature based on fragmentary long bones
who developed a regression fromula to reconstruct legnth of long bone?
dont have to remember all different ponit of stature based on fragmentary bones
we can use segments of a bone to find out what the completelength was
shrinkage starts at age 45 and increases over time
we must subtract a certain amount of length from a persons high depending on the persons age due to cartialage, joint and vertebral compressions.
what do bones shrink?
on avg how much do bones shink?
what if person partially fleshed
bone looses fluids and shink
1.5% compared to bone in living individual
dont worry about it - they wont be dried out.