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2010-05-18 19:25:31

The Blood
Show Answers:

  1. What 2 parts is blood divided into?
    • Plasma - non living
    • Formed Elements - living
  2. What is the pH of blood?
    7.35 - 7.45
  3. What is 90% of blood plasma made of?
  4. What nutrients are found in the blood plasma?
    • Nutrients
    • Salts
    • Respiratory Gases
    • Hormones
    • Protiens
    • Waste Products
  5. What is 55% of blood volume?
  6. What is 45% of blood volume?
    Formed Elements
  7. What protiens are found in plasma?
    • Albumin - regulates pressure
    • Clotting protiens - stop blood loss (fibrogen)
    • Antibodies - protect body from antigens (globugen)
  8. What are the formed elements found in blood?
    • Erythrocytes
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
  9. What is the ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells? (erythrocytes to leukocytes)
  10. What is the anatomy of circulating erythrocytes?
    Bags of hemoglobin with no nucleus - look like discs.
  11. What is hemoglobin?
    Protien that binds to oxygen.
  12. How many oxygen binding sites does each hemoglobin molecule have?
  13. How many hemoglobing moleucles does each erythrocyte have?
    250 Million
  14. What do leukocytes do?
    Help the body fight disease.
  15. What is the anatomy of a white blood cell?
    Complete cell with a nucleus and organelles.
  16. What is an immature red blood cell called?
  17. What is diapedesis?
    Ability to move in and out of blood vessels
  18. How do leukocytes move?
    Diapedesis and Ameboid motion
  19. What are the 3 granulocytes?
    • Basophil
    • Eosinophil
    • Neutrophil
  20. What are the 2 agranulocytes?
    • Lymphocytes
    • / Monocytes (in blood)
    • \ Macrophage (in tissues)
  21. What are the normal levels of leukocytes in the blood?
    4K - 11K per millimeter
  22. What is leukocytosis?
    • Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml
    • Ususally caused by infection
  23. What is Leukopenia?
    • Abnormally low leukocyte level
    • Commonly caused by certain drugs
  24. What are the 2 types of Leukocytes?
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes
  25. What are the physical characteristics of granulocytes?
    The granules in their cytoplasm are visible, and can be stained
  26. What are phsyical characteristics of agranulocytes?
    Lack visible cytoplasmic granules.
  27. What are the characteristics of Neutrophils?
    • Multi-lobed nucleus with fine granules
    • Phagocyte that increases quickly during infection.
  28. What are the characteristics of Eosinophils?
    • Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules
    • Found in response to allergies and parasites
    • Bi-lobed nucleus
  29. What are the characteristics of Basophils?
    • Have histamine containing granules
    • Initiate inflammation
  30. What are the 2 types of agranulocytes?
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  31. Characteristics of Lymphocytes?
    • Nucleus fills most of the cell
    • Plays important role in immune system response
  32. Characteristics of monocytes?
    • Largest white blood cells
    • Function as macrophages (in tissue)
    • Fight chronic infection
  33. How are platelets formed?
    • Rupture of multinucleate cells
    • (megakaryocytes)
  34. What do platelets do?
    Assist clotting process
  35. What is the normal platelet count?
  36. What is hematopoiesis?
    Blood cell formation that occurs in red bone marrow.
  37. What cell are all blood cells derived from?
  38. What 2 cell groups do hemocytoblasts divide into?
    • Lymphoid Stem Cells - produce lymphocytes
    • Myeloid Stem Cells - produce other formed elements
  39. How long do erythrocytes live?
    100 - 120 days
  40. How are worn out erythrocytes eliminated?
    Phagocytes in the spleen or liver
  41. How are lost erythrocytes replaced?
    Division of hemocytoblasts
  42. How does the body know when an erythrocyte is worn out?
    It is unable to grow, divide or synthesize protiens
  43. How is erythrocyte production controlled?
    By the hormone erythropoietin, produced in the kidney.
  44. How does the kidney know to release erythropoietin, in order to produce more erythrocytes?
    Low oxygen levels in the blood
  45. How is homeostasis maintained?
    By negative feedback from blood oxygen levels.
  46. What is homostasis?
    Stoppage of blood flow from a break in a blood vessel
  47. What are the 3 phases of homostasis?
    • Platelet Plug Formation
    • Vascular Spasms
    • Coagulation
  48. How long does it take for a blood clot to form?
    3 - 6 minutes
  49. How long does a blood clot remain?
    • Until endothelium regenerates
    • Clot is broken down after tissue repair
  50. What is thrombocytopenia?
    Platelet deficiency where even normal movement can cause bleeding from small blood vessels
  51. What is hemophilia?
    A hereditary bleeding disorder, where normal clotting factors are absent.
  52. What are the consequences of 15 - 30 percent blood loss?
  53. What is the consequence of 30% blood loss?
    Shock, which can be fatal
  54. What is the only way to replace blood quickly?
    Blood transfusion
  55. What are the 2 different blood group factors?
    • A/B/O
    • Rh
  56. How is blood type determined?
    • Take blood sample
    • Mix with Anti serum A and Anti serum B
    • Depending which sample clumps, you're type A or B.
    • If both clump you're AB
    • If neither clump, you're O
  57. Where are the initial sites of blood cell formation?
    • Fetal liver and spleen.
    • By month 7, bone marrow makes blood.