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What 2 parts is blood divided into?
- Plasma - non living
- Formed Elements - living
What is the pH of blood?
7.35 - 7.45
What is 90% of blood plasma made of?
What nutrients are found in the blood plasma?
- Respiratory Gases
- Waste Products
What is 55% of blood volume?
What is 45% of blood volume?
What protiens are found in plasma?
- Albumin - regulates pressure
- Clotting protiens - stop blood loss (fibrogen)
- Antibodies - protect body from antigens (globugen)
What are the formed elements found in blood?
What is the ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells? (erythrocytes to leukocytes)
What is the anatomy of circulating erythrocytes?
Bags of hemoglobin with no nucleus - look like discs.
What is hemoglobin?
Protien that binds to oxygen.
How many oxygen binding sites does each hemoglobin molecule have?
How many hemoglobing moleucles does each erythrocyte have?
What do leukocytes do?
Help the body fight disease.
What is the anatomy of a white blood cell?
Complete cell with a nucleus and organelles.
What is an immature red blood cell called?
What is diapedesis?
Ability to move in and out of blood vessels
How do leukocytes move?
Diapedesis and Ameboid motion
What are the 3 granulocytes?
What are the 2 agranulocytes?
- / Monocytes (in blood)
- \ Macrophage (in tissues)
What are the normal levels of leukocytes in the blood?
4K - 11K per millimeter
What is leukocytosis?
- Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml
- Ususally caused by infection
What is Leukopenia?
- Abnormally low leukocyte level
- Commonly caused by certain drugs
What are the 2 types of Leukocytes?
What are the physical characteristics of granulocytes?
The granules in their cytoplasm are visible, and can be stained
What are phsyical characteristics of agranulocytes?
Lack visible cytoplasmic granules.
What are the characteristics of Neutrophils?
- Multi-lobed nucleus with fine granules
- Phagocyte that increases quickly during infection.
What are the characteristics of Eosinophils?
- Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules
- Found in response to allergies and parasites
- Bi-lobed nucleus
What are the characteristics of Basophils?
- Have histamine containing granules
- Initiate inflammation
What are the 2 types of agranulocytes?
Characteristics of Lymphocytes?
- Nucleus fills most of the cell
- Plays important role in immune system response
Characteristics of monocytes?
- Largest white blood cells
- Function as macrophages (in tissue)
- Fight chronic infection
How are platelets formed?
- Rupture of multinucleate cells
What do platelets do?
Assist clotting process
What is the normal platelet count?
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood cell formation that occurs in red bone marrow.
What cell are all blood cells derived from?
What 2 cell groups do hemocytoblasts divide into?
- Lymphoid Stem Cells - produce lymphocytes
- Myeloid Stem Cells - produce other formed elements
How long do erythrocytes live?
100 - 120 days
How are worn out erythrocytes eliminated?
Phagocytes in the spleen or liver
How are lost erythrocytes replaced?
Division of hemocytoblasts
How does the body know when an erythrocyte is worn out?
It is unable to grow, divide or synthesize protiens
How is erythrocyte production controlled?
By the hormone erythropoietin, produced in the kidney.
How does the kidney know to release erythropoietin, in order to produce more erythrocytes?
Low oxygen levels in the blood
How is homeostasis maintained?
By negative feedback from blood oxygen levels.
What is homostasis?
Stoppage of blood flow from a break in a blood vessel
What are the 3 phases of homostasis?
- Platelet Plug Formation
- Vascular Spasms
How long does it take for a blood clot to form?
3 - 6 minutes
How long does a blood clot remain?
- Until endothelium regenerates
- Clot is broken down after tissue repair
What is thrombocytopenia?
Platelet deficiency where even normal movement can cause bleeding from small blood vessels
What is hemophilia?
A hereditary bleeding disorder, where normal clotting factors are absent.
What are the consequences of 15 - 30 percent blood loss?
What is the consequence of 30% blood loss?
Shock, which can be fatal
What is the only way to replace blood quickly?
What are the 2 different blood group factors?
How is blood type determined?
- Take blood sample
- Mix with Anti serum A and Anti serum B
- Depending which sample clumps, you're type A or B.
- If both clump you're AB
- If neither clump, you're O
Where are the initial sites of blood cell formation?
- Fetal liver and spleen.
- By month 7, bone marrow makes blood.