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This type of philosophy:
Rooted in Classical Greek Philosophy
Influenced by decades of war (Persian, Peloponnesain, Macedonian).
Shift from a city-state mentality to one that was more cosmopolitanpeople
were looking for a way of life that made sense out of everything
Largely a reactionary philosophy
Who was the founder of Cynicism?
He believed that virtue demanded withdrawal from a world that was immoral and corrupt
Satiation of appetites
sought knowledge, but suspended judgmentIt was said that they “asserted nothing but only opined.”
Saw truth claims as being based on premises that are themselves subject to verification
Founder: Zeno (stoa=porch)
Philosophical reasoning (logos) was the best way of life.
Removed emotions from reason (apathea), but weren’t uncaring or indifferent
All reality is composed of the things that act (spirit) and things to be acted upon (matter).
Believed that a divine force (logos) pervaded all reality.
Equated the Logos with GodVirtue & Happiness consists in discovering the Logos and living in harmony with it.
The phrase “In him we live and move and have our being” (Acts 17:28) was from Cleanthes, one of the original founders of Stoicism
Which philosophy had a strong influence on the later Greeks, Romans, Jews and Christians
Philosophy/Science (Descended from Aristotle)
Used science (reason & observation)
Senses were a valid source of knowledge
Emotion was a way of evaluating knowledge
Center of science moved to Alexandria
Alexandrian scientists strongly supported Aristotle
Athens was left a second-rate center of learning
Science had a difficulty and motivating ethical behavior
Disciples gathered in his garden (philosophy of the Garden)
Authored ~300 scrolls, but little has survived.
Avoided worldliness beyond what was sufficient for one’s needs
Reason must conform to experiences of the senses.
No belief in the gods
No belief in life after death
All things (visible and invisible) composed of eternal indestructible atoms operating by natural laws
Happiness is achieved through virtue
How did the Epicureans believe happiness was best achieved?
- avoiding pain
- contemplating beautiful things
- Good health
- Freedom from drudgery
Where do we get our moral sense?
- Genetics (hard-wired in our brain)?
- Cultural influences (role models, tecahings, etc.)?
- Trial and error(school of hard knocks)?
- The Light of Christ (enlightens everyone born into the world)?
What were the two main Jewish sects?
Jewish sect that were strict observers of the law; began the Rabbinic educational tradition/
Jewish sect that were more upper-class rulers and acculturated to Greek lifestyle
How did the Pharisees feel about the Sadducees?
They were too hellenized
_________ wanted religious freedom; _______ wanted national freedom.
With destruction of temple in 70 AD, _________ disappeared.
__________ recognized obedience as the only acceptable sacrifice.