Progress in every branch of knowledge goes through three stages:
Social structure is based on shared values
Human behaviour is shaped by the social
Society is in a state of equilibrium
Key terms: manifest function, latent function
What are Key sociological Theories?
- conflic theory
- symbolic interactionism
What roles do values play in sociology?
What is social research?
1. Human behaviouyr is governed by relatively stable patterns of social relations or social structures.
2. Show how social structures maintain or undermine social stability.
3. Emphasize that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences.
4. Re-establiishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems.
Are effects of social structures that create social instability.
Are visible and intended effects of social structures.
Are invisible and unitended effects of social structures.
- Generally focuses on large macrolevelstructures and shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others.
Society is divided into social classes
These classes are in constant conflict; conflict between haves and have-not, powerful and powerless
Dominant groups maintain themselves and society by force and/or ideological control
Inequality is the source of social evils
(Durkheim, Parsons, S.D. Clark (Canada))
(Marx and Engels, Porter (Canada))
(Weber, Mead, Goffman (Canada))
(Martineau, Smith and Eichler (Canada))
Focus on subjective understanding of human actions and their consequences
Emphasis on interpersonal micro level social relations
Weber and Protestant Ethic W.I. Thomas: if people define a situation as real, it is real in its consequence
- Focuses on interaction in microlevel social settings and emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances.
Is the belief that religious doubts can be reduced, and state of grace ensured, if people work diligently and ligve ascetically.
According to Weber, the Protestan work ethic had the unintended effect of increasing savings and investment and this stimulation capitalist growth.
Argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally.
Variant of symbolic interactionism...
Show that many of the presumably natural differences between women and men depend on the way power is distributed between them and the degree to which certain ideas about women and men are widely shared...
Claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a person's opportunities in life. It hold sthat male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention.
It examines the operation of patriarchy in both micro and macro settings.
And it contends that existing patterns of gender inequality can and should be changed for the benefit of all members of society.
Macro. Values. How to the institutions of society contribute to social stability? A state of equilibrium.
Macro. Class inequality. How do privileged groups seek to maintain their advantages and subordinate groups seek to increase theirs, often causing social change in the process? The elimination of privilege, especially class privilege.
Micro. Meaning. How do individuals comunicate so as to make their social settings meaningful? Respect for the validity of minority views.
Micro and macro. Patriarchy. Which social structures and interaction processes maintain male dominance and female subordination? The elimination of gender inequality.
Sociologist's main task...
Identify and explain the connection between people's personal troubles and the social structures in which people are embedded.
First social thinkers to assert taht society operates according to scientific laws.
Is the belief that all cultures have equal values...
Focuses on interaction in microlevel social settings and emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requieres understanding the subkective meanings people attach to their social circumstances...
Abstract principles that result in judgment of actions are called...
Field of study...
The sum of practices, languages, symblos, ideologies, and mataerial objetcts that people create to deal with rea-life problems, Cultures enable people to adapto to, and thrive in, their environments.